Kodak

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Eastman Kodak Co., of Rochester, New York, is an American film maker and camera maker. For at least three quarters of the 20th century it played the dominant role in worldwide photography business.

Contents

History

In 1879 George Eastman, amateur photographer and employee of a bank in Rochester, had invented an emulsion-coating machine for mass production of dry plates and got a patent on it in England. In 1881 he and Rochester's local buggy whip manufacturer Henry A. Strong founded the Eastman Dry Plate Company in the town in the north of the state of New York (USA).

In 1883, a year after having solved troubles with bad quality gelatine that spoiled film plates, the company moved to a four-story building which later got the address 343 State Street, longtime headquarters address of the company. In 1884 Eastman and Strong transformed their partnership to a corporation for which they gathered the first shareholders. In 1885 the American Film was introduced, a paper roll film which needed a special development process, made usable with the new Eastman-Walker rollfilm holder. This was used later in the first two Kodak cameras. However Eastman knew that he needed a transparent film for the future, and hired the chemist Henry H. Reichenbach as research scientist. The transparent roll film would be delivered in 1889.

Eastman's goal in life was to simplify and to popularize photography. The first step towards that goal was the "Kodak" camera he introduced in 1888 which had a built-in 100-exposure paper roll film costing $25, a huge amount. The box camera had to be sent back to the factory once all the exposures had been used. The customers got their cameras back with new film roll loaded into it, and the image prints. In 1890 a Kodak folding camera with built-in 48 exposure film roll followed. After years of advertising the brand Kodak the company was renamed Eastman Kodak Co. In 1900 Eastman had reached his goal, offering the Brownie rollfilm camera which cost only $1 including a 6 exposure film. Further film rolls cost just 15 cents. The Brownie camera series was continued until 1970.

Through the early twentieth century, Kodak produced an increasingly large range of cameras, in an increasing range of film formats - becoming the dominant supplier of both cameras and film.


Branches

Kodak used to have autonomous branches in other countries, which developed their own lines of products, as Ford did for cars. The German branch Kodak AG, which made the famous Retina models, is discussed in a separate page, as is Kodak Ltd. (UK).
At its peak Kodak's international plants were:

  • in Canada: Kodak Canada Limited, Toronto
  • in UK: Kodak Limited, several plants
  • in France: Kodak Pathé, several plants
  • in Germany: Kodak AG, Stuttgart (formerly Nagel)
  • in Australia: Kodak Australasia Pty. Ltd., Coburg
  • in Argentina: Kodak Argentina S.A.I.C., Buenos Aires
  • in Brazil: Kodak Brasileira Comércio e Indústria Ltda., Sao Paolo
  • in Spain: Kodak S.A., Madrid
  • in Mexico: Kodak Industrial, S.A. de C.V.

   

With exception of the Mexican plant all these international branches made cameras. Most U.S. plants outside Rochester specialized in producing basic materials like gelatine (Peabody/Massachusetts), plastics (Longview/Texas), chemicals (Batesville/Arkansas), polyester fibre (Columbia/S.C.), and basic materials for film making and others (Kingsport/Tennessee). Some of the films and plates were made in Windsor/Colorado.



Success

At its peak, the company was huge and made everything connected with photography: cameras, lenses (including some of the best lenses of the mid-20th century, see Kodak lenses), film, and processing chemicals and equipment, in addition to photographic materials used in the graphic arts industry (for example, for printing). It also conducted important photographic research and development. 60,000 people were working for Kodak in Rochester. In 1966 the company had 100,000 employees worldwide.

The most popular Kodak cameras were the ones for 126 film cartridges. The first of these cameras was launched in 1963. By 1976, 60 million Instamatic cameras had been sold, six times more than all competitors put together had sold of this camera type, and also six times more than Kodak's previous big success, the Brownie Star camera series (10 million Starflex, Starmite, and Starflash sold, made from 1957 to 1962). Another huge success was achieved with Kodak's type 110 pocket film cartridges and pocket cameras which were introduced in 1972. But this time other companies took a larger share of the market by abandoning their own miniature film formats and introducing smart pocket cameras for 110 film instead. Kodak's decline began when it flopped with another miniature film format, the disc film, in the 1980s.


Decline

In the late 1970s, Kodak developed instant cameras and a new Instant Picture system, in competition with Polaroid. This led to lawsuits, resulting in a loss for Kodak. Damages of over $900 million were awarded to Polaroid[3].

In 1975 electronics engineer Steven Sasson developed Kodak's first digital still camera (for 0.1 megapixel black&white exposures), based on CCD technology. Kodak didn't pay much attention to this invention as their main focus was film. In 1994 they helped Apple develop and market the Quick Take 100 and 150 digital cameras while Kodak's focus in the digital camera section was aimed at reporters and journalists (Kodak DCS series). Consumer digital cameras were marketed from 1995 on under the brand Kodak (Kodak DC40). In August 2006 they abandoned the production of digital cameras by outsourcing the production to Flextronics, an all-and-everything OEM manufacturer in Singapore.

Bankruptcy

By the 1980s, Kodak's dominant position in photography had begun to erode for a variety of reasons, including more aggressive marketing from Fuji and the rise of sophisticated 35mm point and shoot cameras from Japanese manufacturers[4]. Years of steady profits had led to a conservative, risk-averse management style. During the 2000s, mass photography shifted overwhelmingly to digital cameras, which put sales of Kodak's traditional film, paper, and chemistry into a steep dive. Despite shedding many products (such as black & white enlarging paper and Kodachrome film), by 2011 the company had become a consistent money-loser. A last-ditch effort to sell off the company's war chest of patents (many involving digital imaging) did not meet with much success; and on January 19th, 2012 the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection[5]. In January of 2013, JK Imaging Ltd. is licensing the Kodak brand for consumer digital camera products[6]. In April of 2013, the personalized imaging and document imaging businesses divisions were acquired by Kodak's UK Pension Plan (KPP).[7] The acquisition will be under the name Kodak Alaris.[8] They will be using the Kodak branding for consumer and professional films along with retail photo kiosks and paper products. Eastman Kodak emerged out of bankruptcy protection in August 2013 and concentrates its business on commercial printing and packaging services.[9]

Advertising

Becoming the only super power in a market of popular and professional products was not just based on product quality. Advertising the big brand was always a not underestimatable factor of Kodak's success.

Notes

  1. Headquarter, image by THEjdawg, license: image used with permission, all rights reserved.
  2. motto logo, image by Mario Groleau, license: Creative Commons (not for commercial use).
  3. Polaroid corp. v Eastman Kodak Co.
  4. "Embattled Kodak enters the electronic age" by By Thomas Moore, originally published 1983 in Fortune magazine; online copy published January 8, 2012 by CNN Money
  5. Kodak's petition for Chapter 11 bankruptcy filed 19 January 2012, posted to Scribd by the New York Times "DealBook."
  6. [1] at Kodak News Releases
  7. Kodak sells two businesses to its own UK pension plan, in $650m deal at British Journal of-Photography
  8. U.K. Kodak Pension Plan Completes Acquisition of Eastman Kodak Company's Personalized Imaging and Document Imaging Businesses at PR Newswire - Sept 2013.
  9. Kodak gets court approval to emerge from bankruptcy protection at British Journal of-Photography

Film

For much of its history, Kodak operated on what has been called the "razor blade" business model. Camera manufacture was not Kodak's primary source of profits; instead, affordable cameras generated an ongoing, steady demand for photographic consumables: film, chemistry, and print paper.

See the article Kodak film for a listing of the company's main film brands.

Cameras

Single-use cameras

110 film models

35mm film models

  • Fling 35, Fun, Fun Time, FunSaver, Max, HQ , Black & White, Flash, Power Flash
    • Panoramic models
    • Waterproof models
      • Fun Aquatic, FunSaver Weekend 35, Sport

APS film models

  • Kodak Advantix disposable series

35mm film

126 film

See the Instamatic page.

135 film

Roll film

101 film

102 film

103 film

104 film

105 film

106 film

  • No. 2 Eureka Camera
  • No. 2 Eureka Camera Junior

109 film

  • No. 4 Eureka Camera

115 film

  • No. 5 Cartridge Kodak

116 film

117 film

  • The Brownie
  • No. 1 Brownie

118 film

  • No. 3 Autographic Kodak Camera
  • No. 3 Autographic Kodak Special Model A
  • No. 3 Folding Hawk-eye Camera (Models 1-9)
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model A
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model AB
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model AB-EX
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model ABX
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model B
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model B-2
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model B-3
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model B-4
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model C
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model C-2
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model C-3
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model C-4
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model C-5
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model D
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model E
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model F
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model G
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Camera Model H
  • No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak Deluxe Camera
  • No. 3 Kodak Series III Camera
  • No. 3 Pocket Kodak Series III Camera
  • No. 3 Pocket Kodak Special Camera
  • No. 3 Special Kodak Camera
  • Six-Three Kodak No. 3 Camera

119 film

  • No. 3 Cartridge Kodak Camera

120 film:

120 film, folder

120 film, box

121 film

  • No. 0 Folding Pocket Camera (Model A, B)

122 film

123 film

124 film

125 film

126 film

127 film

130 film

  • No. 2C Autographic Kodak Junior
  • No. 2C Autographic Kodak Special
  • No. 2C Brownie
  • No. 2C Folding Autographic Brownie
  • No. 2C Folding Cartridge Premo Camera
  • No. 2C Kodak Series III
  • No. 2C Pocket Kodak
  • No. 2C Pocket Kodak Series III
  • No. 2C Pocket Kodak Special

616 film

620 film

828 Bantam film

Plate and sheet film

Recomar film pack cameras

Premo film pack cameras

Folding plate cameras

postcard format

large format

small film formats

APS film

See the Advantix page

110 film

Instamatic, see Instamatic 110 list. Hawkeye Instamatic, see Instamatic 110 list. Tele-Instamatic, see Instamatic 110 list. Pocket Instamatic, see Instamatic 110 list.

  • Fisher-Price 100 Camera
  • Kodak 101 Dalmatians
  • Kodak Cameo Motor 110
  • Kodak Brownie (110 camera)
  • Kodak Brownie II
  • Kodak Cross
  • Kodak Ektra 1
  • Kodak Ektra 2
  • Kodak Ektra 10
  • Kodak Ektra 12
  • Kodak Ektra 12-EF
  • Kodak Ektra 20
  • Kodak Ektra 22
  • Kodak Ektra 22-EF
  • Kodak Ektra 52
  • Kodak Ektra 90
  • Kodak Ektra 92
  • Kodak Ektra 100
  • Kodak Ektra 150
  • Kodak Ektra 200
  • Kodak Ektra 250
  • Kodak Ektralite 10
  • Kodak Ektralite 30
  • Kodak Ektralite 400
  • Kodak Ektralite 450
  • Kodak Ektralite 500
  • Kodak Ektramax
  • Kodak Fling (single-use)
  • Kodak for Kids 110 Flash
  • Kodak Galatic
  • Kodak Gimini
  • Kodak Graffiti
  • Kodak Kids Camera
  • Kodak Outdoor 110
  • Kodak Pazzazz
  • Kodak pocket A-1
  • Kodak pocket B-1
  • Kodak pocket Instatech Close Up
  • Kodak Sport
  • Kodak Star
  • Kodak Star 110
  • Kodak Stylelite pocket camera
  • Kodak Tele-Ektra 1
  • Kodak Tele-Ektra 2
  • Kodak Tele-Ektra 32
  • Kodak Tele-Ektra 42
  • Kodak Tele-Ektra 300
  • Kodak Tele-Ektra 350
  • Kodak Tele-Ektralite 20
  • Kodak Tele-Ektralite 40
  • Kodak Tele-Ektralite 600
  • Kodak Tele-Stylelite pocket camera
  • Kodak Winner "Olympic"
  • Lion King by Kodak
  • Mickey-Matic by Kodak

other 16mm film

Cine

Special film

Kodak disc film

See also Disc film

  • Kodak disc 6100
  • Kodak disc 8000
  • Kodak Hawkeye disc 7000
  • Kodak Medalist I
  • Kodak Medalist II
  • Kodak Medalist Tele-Disc
  • Kodak Tele-Challenger
  • Kodak Tele-Disc

Instant film

For Kodak instant film products see Kodak Instant.

Digital

See also Kodak Easyshare.

optical finder, no display

just display, no optical finder

  • Kodak Easyshare C15, C122, C123 (Sport), C142, C143, C180, C182, C183, C190, C195, C433, C713, C763, C875, C913, C1013, C1450, C1505, C1530, C1550
  • Kodak Easyshare CD14, CD22, CD24, CD44, CD50, CD80, CD82, CD83, CD90, CD93, CD153, CD703, CD1013
  • Kodak Easyshare Fun Saver FD3
  • Kodak Easyshare LS755
  • Kodak Easyshare M22, M23, M52, M200 (MINI), M320, M340, M341, M380, M381, M420, M522, M530, M531, M532, M550, M552, M575, M577 (Touch), M580, M583, M590, M753, M763, M853, M863, M873, M883, M893 IS, M1033, M1063, M1073 IS, M1093 IS, M2008, M5350, M5370 (Touch)
  • Kodak Easyshare MD30, MD41, MD55, MD81, MD853, MD855, MD1063
  • Kodak Easyshare MX1063
  • Kodak Easyshare One 4MP, 6MP
  • Kodak Easyshare SLICE
  • Kodak Easyshare V530, V550, V570 (Dual Lens), V603 , V610(Dual Lens), V705 (Dual Lens), V803, V830, V1003, V1073, V1233, V1253, V1273
  • Kodak Easyshare Z583, Z700, Z730, Z760, Z885, Z915, Z950, Z1085 IS, Z1275, Z5010, Z5120, Z8612 IS, Z915
  • Kodak Easyshare ZD15

display and optical finder

  • DC25, DC120 Zoom, DC200, DC200 Plus, DC210, DC210 Plus, DC215, DC220, DC220 Pro Edition, DC240, DC260, DC260 Pro Edition, DC265, DC280, DC290, DC3200, DC3400, DC3800, DC4800, DC5000
  • Kodak Easyshare DX3215, DX3500, DX3600, DX3700, DX3900, DX4330, DX4530, DX4900, DX6340, DX6440, DX7440, DX7630
  • Kodak Easyshare C300, C310, C315, C330, C340, C360, C503, C513, C530, C533, C603, C643, C653, C663, C703, C743
  • Kodak Easyshare CD33, CD40, CD43
  • Kodak Easyshare CW330
  • Kodak Easyshare CX4200, CX4210, CX4230, CX4300, CX4310, CX6200, CX6230, CX6330, CX6445, CX7220, CX7300, CX7310, CX7330, CX7430, CX7525, CX7530
  • Kodak Easyshare EZ200
  • Kodak Easyshare LS420, LS443, LS633, LS743, LS753, LS755
  • Kodak Easyshare Z700, Z730, Z760

display and electronic finder

  • Kodak Easyshare DX6490, DX7590
  • Kodak Easyshare P712, P850, P880
  • Kodak Easyshare Z612, Z650, Z710, Z712 IS, Z740, Z812 IS, Z980, Z981, Z990 (MAX), Z1012 IS, Z1015 IS, Z7590
  • Kodak Easyshare ZD710

DSLR

Nikon AF mount

Canon EF mount

Nikon Pronea mount

Digital backs

Publications

Resources

photography related industry in Rochester (New York)
American Camera | Bausch & Lomb | Blair | Century | Crown Optical Co. | Elgeet | Folmer & Schwing | Gassner and Marx | Graflex | Gundlach | Ilex | JML | Kodak | Milburn | Monroe | PMC | Ray | Reichenbach, Morey and Will | Rochester Camera and Supply Co. | Rochester Optical Co. | Seneca | Sunart | Walker | Wollensak
and in Rochester (Minnesota)
Conley
external links
graflex.org - Rudolf Kingslake's
"Optical industry in Rochester (N.Y.)"

Books

  • KODAK Milestones, 1880-1980, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester NY, USA: 1980.
  • BRAYER, Elizabeth: George Eastman: A Biography, University of Rochester Press, 2012. ISBN 978-1580462471.
  • COE, Brian: Kodak Cameras: The First Hundred Years, Hove Books, 2nd ed., 2003. ISBN 1874707375.
  • McKEOWN, Jim & Joan: Collectors Guide to Kodak Cameras, Centennial Photo Service, 1981. ISBN 0-931838-02-9.
  • NAGEL, Helmut: Zauber der Kamera: Beispiele aus dem Kodak-Nagel-Werk, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1977. ISBN 3421025169.
  • KEMMLER, Karl Otto: Nagel und Kodak Kameras, Gisela Kemmler, 1983.

Links

Websites in English:

Websites in French:

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