In 1928 Dr. August Nagel, founder of Contessa and co-founder of of Zeiss Ikon, split off to start his own camera factory in his hometown Stuttgart. It became famous for its small format camera Nagel-Pupille. In 1931 the company became Kodak's German branch Kodak AG. After that, the model range continued with the Kodak name.
In the mid-1930s, Dr. Nagel devised a 35mm film cassette that would fit the successful Leica and Contax rangefinder cameras; Nagel also shrank its earlier Vollenda camera to fit this smaller format—creating the Retina). Kodak in the US promoted this new film packaging as 135 format, and it soon became the 35mm standard that is universal today.