Midget

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Japanese subminiature
on paper-backed roll film and round film (edit)
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cine film see Japanese cine film subminiature
110 film see Japanese 110 film

See also the Ensign Midget.

The Midget (ミゼット) is a Japanese subminiature camera, distributed by Misuzu Shōkai from 1937 to the early 1950s. It was initially manufactured by the company Jilona Shōkai, named after Nakamura Jirō. Jilona markings are displayed on most cameras, and this is why these models are often called "Midget Jilona".

Contents

General description

The Midget takes ten 14×14mm exposures on unperforated 17.5mm film. It was perhaps the first still camera in the world to use this type of film,[1] certainly obtained by slicing 35mm film in two.[2] The same format was soon adopted by the Mycro, another Japanese subminiature and Midget's main competitor; after World War II it was popularized by Tougodo's Hit and a host of similar "Hit-type" cameras.

All the Midget models have the same main body made of pressed metal. The lens and shutter assembly is mounted on a tube at the front; the lens is fixed-focus and the release lever is on the shutter casing itself. The film is advanced by a knob at the top left, as seen by the photographer, with an arrow engraved at the top. The back is hinged to the left and contains a single red window to control the advance. All the models are identified by the word MIDGET inscribed on the shutter plate, above the lens.

Original model

Description and variations

The original Midget is often called "Midget Jilona 1" by today's collectors,[3] but its official designation at the time was simply "Midget" (ミゼット). The camera has a spring-loaded folding finder at the top, containing a piece of plain transparent glass.[4] It usually has a small accessory grip at the top right, also used as a nameplate. The red window on the back is uncovered and surrounded by a round metal frame. The back latch consists of a small sliding button. The lens has no marking and no diaphragm setting; its aperture is about f/8 or f/11.[5] It has multiple elements, maybe consisting of a single convex element at the front and an achromat doublet at the rear.[6] The shutter has two settings only Bulb and Instant (about 1/25).[7]

Variations are known in the camera markings. Most cameras have Jilona under the lens and Jilona MIDGET No.1233 on the nameplate at the top; the serial number 1233 is a fake and is the some on all the examples. Some cameras have a patent number instead: PAT. No. 253654 under the lens and PAT'ED MIDGET 253654 above. Finally, some cameras have no inscription at all under the lens and have no nameplate at the top, replaced by a round flange.[8]

Some cameras have an additional Made in Japan marking above the advance knob,[9] perhaps because they were made for export. Finally, the body covering exists in various colours; the most common are black and red, definitely original and appearing in a period leaflet;[10] blue and grey models have been observed too and a brown version is reported.[11]

History and documents

The Midget was released in Spring 1937. The earliest known advertisement is in Asahi Camera April 1937; the price is given as ¥10, one roll of film costing ¥0.25.[12] (This price is low, but a bakelite Baby Minolta taking 4×6.5cm pictures was cheaper at ¥9.50.) The camera is featured in the August issue of the same magazine, which also has an advertisement showing the revised price of ¥11, including a purse-shaped leather pouch (蟇口型皮ケース).[13]

The advertisements in Asahi Camera September and October 1937, reproduced above, give the higher price of ¥13.50, and mentions a hood with filter for ¥2.50.[14] The October issue of Ars Camera shows essentially the same document, printed in two colours (see below).[15] Advertisements in Asahi Camera dated June, August and September 1938 give the higher price of ¥13.50, and list a growing number of accessories (see below).[16]

All the advertisements were placed by the distributor Misuzu Shōkai, but the camera was actually manufactured by Jilona Shōkai.[17] This company was named after Nakamura Jirō (中村次郎), certainly the inventor of the Midget concept: "Jilo" is an alternative spelling for the first name Jirō, and "na" is for Nakamura. Jilona Shōkai was not ruled by Nakamura but by Shibuya Takashige (渋谷高重), who fired Nakamura in August 1938 and announced that he would establish a contract with Ōmiya, regardless of the agreement already tying the company to Misuzu Shōkai.[17] As a result of these tensions, Jilona piled up a stock of 3,000 unsold cameras.[18] (The advertisement in Asahi Camera October 1938 gives no price for the Midget camera, perhaps reflecting these events.)[19] In October, Mr Imamoto of Kyoto bought Jilona's stocks; he later tried to sue Misuzu Shōkai, presumably disputing the exclusivity on the distribution of the Midget, but the court persuaded him to reach an agreement with the company in March 1939.[20]

After these troubles, Misuzu Shōkai became the camera's sole distributor again, and the eventual fate of Jilona Shōkai and its head officer Shibuya Takashige is unknown. Jilona markings continued to appear on the camera for some time, and Nakamura Jirō presumably continued to play a role in its development.

The advertisement in Asahi Camera March 1939 still shows the original Midget for ¥13.50; this is the last occurrence of the original version.[21]

New Midget

The New Midget is often called "Midget Jilona 1a" or "1b" by today's collectors,[22] but this name was never used at the time. It has a new top housing containing a rigid viewfinder, and extending to the right under the accessory grip. The advance knob is higher and can now turn in one direction only. The red window is modified by the addition of a horizontally sliding cover.

The words Jilona MIDGET No.27488 are engraved above the viewfinder; the serial number is again a fake, the same on all the cameras. The accessory grip has no markings. The shutter plate has the names MIDGET and Jilona, as on most examples of the original model. The original leatherette covering of the back has New Model embossed near the latch. The New Midget was made in black only.[23]

The New Midget was advertised in Japanese magazines from April 1939 to November 1940.[24] Advertisements dated May, September and December 1939 show the price of ¥13.50, same as for the original model.[25] The official list of set prices compiled in October 1940 and published in January 1941 mentions the "New Midget I" for ¥10 only, placing it in the lowest price category.[26]

New Midget II

Description

The New Midget II, today often called "Midget Jilona 2", has a newer lens, engraved Midget Anastigmat 1:4.5. Some sources say that the lens is of the Rapid Rectilinear type, consisting of two achromat doublets.[27] It is however registered in the April 1943 government inquiry as a three-element 20/4.5, made by Yoshino.[28] It is still fixed-focus and has a fixed aperture. The shutter plate is redesigned, with more legible MIDGET and Jilona inscriptions and a pair of metal stripes on each side of the lens.

Variations are known in the camera markings. The marking above the viewfinder is either Jilona MIDGET No.27488, same as on the New Midget, or Jilona MIDGET No.354425 (maybe corresponding to a patent number). Most examples, but not all, have the words Model No.2 added to the accessory grip. The chronology of these variations is not yet fully understood.

Before 1945

The early New Midget II have the same back latch as the previous models. This version was advertised as a new model in Asahi Camera December 1940, with no mention of the price.[29] In the January 1941 official price list cited above, the set price of the New Midget II is ¥19.[30] The leaflet by Kankyū Hyakkaten reproduced here, dating from the early 1940s, gives the same price and says that "the Midget is the new Pen" (ミゼットは新しさペン!); this is an early occurrence of the comparison between a miniature camera and a pen, which would be fully applied for the Olympus Pen. An article dated January 1942 and an advertisement dated April 1942 give the slightly higher price of ¥22.50.[31]

The New Midget II still appears in the April 1943 government inquiry on Japanese camera production. In this document, the manufacturer is registered as Tōa Kinzoku, perhaps a successor to Jilona Shōkai. The production of the camera certainly came to a halt very soon, because of the war.

After 1945

The Midget was revived around 1948. At the beginning it was plainly called "Midget" (ミゼット), and the full name "New Midget II" (ニューミゼットⅡ型) reappeared in the documents only gradually.[32]. One recent source says that the camera was sold for ¥800 around 1948, but this is unconfirmed.[33] The earliest postwar advertisements known so far are dated April 1948; one of them says that the camera's production was delayed because many improvements were made.[34] This is an obvious overstatement: the pictured camera is exactly the same as the early New Midget II, with the older back latch. The same version still appears in advertisements up to September 1949.[35]

The late New Midget II have a newer back latch consisting of a sliding bar. Two variants are known of this newer latch: one is attached to the camera's body, the other moves together with the back.[36] Advertisements from October 1949 onwards are known to picture the new version.[37] None of these documents mentions a price, certainly because of the high inflation in Japan at the time, making it impossible to settle a stable price.

At least one brown example of the late New Midget II is known to exist; its leatherette covering has the New Model embossing on the back and is therefore original.[38]

New Midget III

The New Midget III has a body release replacing the accessory grip. The shutter now has a setting lever, marked with a red dot, and gives B, 25, 50, 100 settings. The aperture is adjustable from 4.5 to 11, by moving a lever on the side of the lens barrel.

The early cameras have the same markings as the New Midget II: MIDGET and Jilona on the shutter plate, and Jilona MIDGET No.354425 above the viewfinder. The late cameras have Model III instead of Jilona under the lens, and Model III MIDGET Pat. No.357598 above the viewfinder. (Today, the early version is often called "Midget Jilona 2a", and only the late cameras are called "Midget Jilona III", but this is a mistake.)[39] All the cameras have the New Model embossing on the back leatherette, inherited from the New Midget.

The New Midget III was released in June 1951.[40] The advertisement published that month in Asahi Camera shows an early example with Jilona markings.[41] The newer Model III markings are visible in an advertisement dated October 1953;[42] the exact date of the transition is unknown. The camera had a long and successful commercial life, and it was last advertised in August 1955.[43]

Accessories

Cases

When the original Midget was released in 1937, the only existing accessory was the leather pouch supplied with the camera.[44] The ever-ready case, normally made of brown leather and embossed MIDGET at the front, appeared in mid-1938.[45] It was only available as a separate accessory, priced at ¥3, and the soft pouch continued to be supplied as the standard equipment until 1945.[46] The leather case was certainly modified for the release of the New Midget, because of the higher top housing. Variations in the color and markings of the pouch and case are detailed in this page at Mycro.jp.

Hood and filter

The hood with filter was sold for ¥2.50 and has a round shape. The version supplied for the original Midget is black with a white MIDGET engraving, has a 14mm diameter attachment and comes in a red rigid case, with the words Jilona MIDGET Filter moulded on the cover.[47] That for the New Midget is chrome finished; [48] a set containing the hood and two filters was offered in Autumn 1939 for ¥3.50.[49] The hood for the New Midget II is chrome finished with a 16mm diameter attachment and the inscription MIDGET Model No.2; it comes in a black rigid case, similar to the red case of the original hood.[50]

Waist-level finder

The waist-level finder consists of a small prism with two convex faces, set in a metal clip which can be attached to the accessory grip at the right end of the top plate. The rear of the clip is engraved no.1233 MIDGET, using the same fake serial number as on the original camera body.[51] It comes in a red jewel case, with the word MIDGET inside.[52] This accessory was sold for ¥3.50 and was first featured in a column of Asahi Camera June 1938.[53]

Film

When the camera was released, the only available film was an orthochromatic "chrome" emulsion, at ¥0.25 per roll.[54] Some months later, the price of the roll rose to ¥0.30, and a panchromatic emulsion appeared for ¥0.40.[55]

Film processing tank

The film processing tank, sold for ¥5.50, appeared as a new product in the August 1938 advertisement in Asahi Camera, and was featured in the September issue of the same magazine.[56] It is made of bakelite and has the shape of a brick, containing 150cc of liquid, enough to process three film rolls at a time, held in separate bakelite inserts. This accessory was certainly badly needed after the release of panchromatic film, which must be processed in complete darkness.

A smaller film processing tank, containing a single roll of film and sold for ¥3, was announced in December 1939 as "available soon", and released in early 1940.[57] One example is pictured in this page at Mycro.jp; it consists of a glass bottle inserted in a wooden shell inscribed Jilona MIDGET Developing Tank, with a water-tight lid. (The original box reportedly mentions the Japanese patent no.82458.)

Enlarger

The enlarger, sold for ¥9.80, was featured in Asahi Camera August 1938 and advertised as a new product in the August and September issues of the same magazine.[58] It consists of a compact box with a condenser and a film holder at the top and a paper holder at the bottom, and needs an external light source. The output size is fixed at 4×4cm; this is really unimpressive by today's standards but the 3× enlarging ratio was surely enough for the quality of the lens and of the film available at the time. One example is pictured in this page at Mycro.jp.

Negative cover

The "negative cover" is a box containing twelve processed negative films, each of them stored in an individual frame keeping one uncut film roll. It appeared in October 1938, and was sold for ¥0.80.[59]

Photo record

The "photo record" is a folder containing forty processed negative films on one side, facing the corresponding 400 contact prints on the other side. It appeared around December 1938, and was sold for ¥6.[60]

Makeup box

The Midget was reportedly offered in January 1938 as a set costing ¥16 and containing the camera, the leather pouch, six film rolls and a makeup box.[61]

Original box

A variety of original boxes for the Midget cameras and accessories are presented in this page at Mycro.jp.

After 1945

After the war, the specific Midget accessories ceased to appear in the advertisements for the camera. Misuzu Shōkai certainly continued to supply accessories, but these were certainly common to the various Japanese subminiature cameras.

Cheap Hit-type model

The name Midget was also used for different Hit-type cameras, probably made after the production of the New Midget III came to a halt. They were certainly trying to draw on the good reputation of the previous camera, to which they were unrelated. A rather cheap looking example is pictured in this page at Submin.com. A seemingly better model has been observed for sale with an instruction sheet mentioning the company Daishin Seiki (successor of Tougodo) as the manufacturer and distributor.[62]

Notes

  1. Awano, p.3 of Camera Collectors' News no.271.
  2. Sugiyama, p.70, says that the film was "made by slitting 35mm cine film (prior to being perforated)".
  3. See for example McKeown, p.692.
  4. Plain transparent glass: Awano, p.1 of Camera Collectors' News no.271, and this page at Mycro.jp.
  5. About f/8 or f/11: Awano, p.1 of Camera Collectors' News no.271. The article in Asahi Camera August 1937, reproduced in Awano, p.8 of Camera Collectors' News no.271, mentions two aperture settings at f/8 and f/11 (絞りはF8とF11位の二種となっていて), but no aperture control is visible on the camera.
  6. Multiple elements (復玉): article in Asahi Camera August 1937, reproduced in Awano, p.8 of Camera Collectors' News no.271. Lens scheme: Awano, p.1 of the same magazine.
  7. About 1/25: article in Asahi Camera August 1937, reproduced in Awano, p.8 of Camera Collectors' News no.271.
  8. Pictures in this page at Mycro.jp.
  9. Variation pictured in this page at Mycro.jp.
  10. Leaflet reproduced in this page at Mycro.jp.
  11. Blue and grey: see this page and this page at submin.com. Brown: reported in this page at Mycro.jp.
  12. Advertisement reproduced in Awano, p.6 of Camera Collectors' News no.271. This is the earliest advertisement listed in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.341.
  13. Article and advertisement reproduced in Awano, pp.7–8 of Camera Collectors' News no.271.
  14. Advertisements in Asahi Camera October 1937, p.A2, and November 1937, p.A2.
  15. Advertisement in Ars Camera October 1937, back cover.
  16. Advertisements reproduced in Awano, pp.8–9 of Camera Collectors' News no.272.
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Shōwa-ki no shashin gyōkai", August 1938.
  18. "Shōwa-ki no shashin gyōkai", September 1938.
  19. Advertisement reproduced in Awano, p.9 of Camera Collectors' News no.272.
  20. "Shōwa-ki no shashin gyōkai", October 1938 and March 1939.
  21. Advertisement reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.96. This is the last advertisement listed for the original Midget on p.341 of the same source.
  22. See for example McKeown, p.692, and this page at submin.com.
  23. Black only: article in Asahi Camera May 1939 reproduced in Awano, p.9 of Camera Collectors' News no.271; this source says that the article is dated May 1940, surely by mistake, and the correct date is given in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.341.
  24. Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.341.
  25. Advertisement in Asahi Camera May 1939 reproduced in Awano, p.9 of Camera Collectors' News no.271; advertisement in Asahi Camera September 1939 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.96; advertisement on p.1 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin December 15, 1939, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.35.
  26. "Kokusan shashinki no kōtei kakaku" (国産写真機の公定価格, Set prices of the Japanese cameras), listing Japanese camera production as of October 25, 1940 and setting the retail prices from December 10, 1940. Published in Asahi Camera January 1941 and reproduced in Shōwa 10—40nen kōkoku ni miru kokusan kamera no rekishi (昭和10〜40年広告にみる国産カメラの歴史, Japanese camera history as seen in advertisements, 1935—1965). Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1994. ISBN 4-02-330312-7. Pp.108—9., type 5, section 5.
  27. RR type: Awano, p.2 of Camera Collectors' News no.271, and this page at Mycro.jp. Awano also doubts that the lens really has f/4.5 aperture, but no definitive conclusion can be drawn so far.
  28. "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" (国産写真機ノ現状調査, Inquiry into Japanese cameras), listing Japanese camera production as of April 1943. Reproduced in Supuringu kamera de ikou: Zen 69 kishu no shōkai to tsukaikata (スプリングカメラでいこう: 全69機種の紹介と使い方, Let's try spring cameras: Presentation and use of 69 machines). Tokyo: Shashinkogyo Syuppan-sha, 2004. ISBN 4-87956-072-3. Pp.180–7., lens item I2.
  29. Advertisement reproduced in Awano, p.10 of Camera Collectors' News no.271.
  30. "Kokusan shashinki no kōtei kakaku" (国産写真機の公定価格, Set prices of the Japanese cameras), listing Japanese camera production as of October 25, 1940 and setting the retail prices from December 10, 1940. Published in Asahi Camera January 1941 and reproduced in Shōwa 10—40nen kōkoku ni miru kokusan kamera no rekishi (昭和10〜40年広告にみる国産カメラの歴史, Japanese camera history as seen in advertisements, 1935—1965). Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1994. ISBN 4-02-330312-7. Pp.108—9., type 5, section 6A.
  31. Article in Sun Times January 1942 reproduced in Awano, p.10 of Camera Collectors' News no.271; advertisement in Hōdō Shashin April 1942 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.96.
  32. Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.367, presents these as two separate versions, differentiated by the fixed shutter speed (1/25 or 1/50), but this is certainly a mistake.
  33. Lewis, p.62.
  34. Advertisement on the third cover of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin April 20, 1948, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.85. Another advertisement dated April 1948 is the earliest reported in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.367.
  35. Advertisement in Ars Camera January 1949 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.192; advertisement in Ars Camera February 1949, p.51, reproduced in this page; advertisements in Kohga Gekkan July 1949 and in Ars Camera September 1949 reproduced in Awano, pp.6–7 of Camera Collectors' News no.272.
  36. See the pictures in this page at Mycro.jp.
  37. Advertisement in Kohga Gekkan October 1949 reproduced in Awano, p.7 of Camera Collectors' News no.272; advertisement in Photo Art December 1949 (p.67) and May 1950 (p.99), reproduced in this page; advertisement in Ars Camera December 1949 reproduced in Nostalgic Camera by Toshio Inamura; advertisement in Photo Art February 1950 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.192; advertisement on p.11 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin January 10, 1951, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.97.
  38. Example pictured in this page at submin.com.
  39. See for example McKeown, p.692, and this page at submin.com.
  40. Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.367.
  41. Advertisement reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.192.
  42. Advertisement on p.18 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin October 1, 1953, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.116.
  43. Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.367.
  44. The advertisements in Asahi Camera April and August 1937 reproduced in Awano, pp.6–7 of Camera Collectors' News no.271, show no other accessory.
  45. The case is listed as "available soon" in the advertisement in Asahi Camera June 1938 reproduced in Awano, p.8 of Camera Collectors' News no.272.
  46. Advertisements in Asahi Camera June, August, September and October 1938 reproduced in Awano, pp.8–9 of Camera Collectors' News no.272; advertisements in Asahi Camera March and September 1939 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.96; advertisement on p.1 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin December 15, 1939, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.35.
  47. 14mm diameter: Awano, p.4 of Camera Collectors' News no.272, and this page at Mycro.jp.
  48. The column on the New Midget in Asahi Camera May 1939 reproduced in Awano, p.9 of Camera Collectors' News no.271, mentions a new chrome hood. (The column is dated May 1940 in Awano by mistake, and the correct date is given in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.341.)
  49. Advertisement in Asahi Camera September 1939 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.96; advertisement on p.1 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin December 15, 1939, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.35.
  50. 16mm diameter: Awano, p.4 of Camera Collectors' News no.272, and [http://mycro.jp/midget/jp/ac_01.html this page at Mycro.jp.
  51. Finder pictured in this page at Mycro.jp.
  52. Case pictured is visible at the bottom of this page at submin.com.
  53. Column reproduced in Awano, p.10 of Camera Collectors' News no.272; advertisements in Asahi Camera June, August and October 1938 reproduced on pp.8–9 of the same; advertisements in Asahi Camera March and September 1939 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.96; advertisement on p.1 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin December 15, 1939, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.35.
  54. Chrome film: article in Asahi Camera August 1937 reproduced in Awano, p.8 of Camera Collectors' News no.271. Price: advertisements in Asahi Camera April and August 1937 reproduced on pp.6–7 of the same magazine.
  55. Advertisements in Asahi Camera June, August and October 1938 reproduced in Awano, pp.8–9 of Camera Collectors' News no.272; advertisements in Asahi Camera March and September 1939 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.96; advertisement on p.1 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin December 15, 1939, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.35.
  56. Advertisements in Asahi Camera August, September and October 1938 reproduced in Awano, pp.8–9 of Camera Collectors' News no.272; column in Asahi Camera September 1938 reproduced on p.10 of the same; advertisements in Asahi Camera March and September 1939 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.96; advertisement on p.1 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin December 15, 1939, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.35.
  57. Advertisement on p.1 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin December 15, 1939, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.35. Awano, p.2 of Camera Collectors' News no.272, says that it was also advertised in March 1940.
  58. Advertisements in Asahi Camera August and September 1938 reproduced in Awano, pp.8–9 of Camera Collectors' News no.272, and column in Asahi Camera August 1938 reproduced on p.10 of the same.
  59. Advertisement and column in Asahi Camera October 1938 reproduced in Awano, pp.9–10 of Camera Collectors' News no.272; advertisements in Asahi Camera March and September 1939 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.96; advertisement on p.1 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin December 15, 1939, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.35.
  60. Column in Asahi Camera December 1938 reproduced in Awano, p.11 of Camera Collectors' News no.272; advertisement in Asahi Camera March 1939 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.96; advertisement on p.1 of Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin December 15, 1939, reproduced in Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku, p.35.
  61. Awano, p.3 of Camera Collectors' News no.271.
  62. Example observed in an online auction.

Bibliography

Original documents

  • Ars Camera. Advertisements by Misuzu Shōkai:
    • October 1937, back cover;
    • February 1949, p.51.
  • Asahi Camera. Advertisements by Misuzu Shōkai:
    • September 1937, p.A2;
    • October 1937, p.A2.
  • "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" (国産写真機ノ現状調査, Inquiry into Japanese cameras), listing Japanese camera production as of April 1943. Reproduced in Supuringu kamera de ikou: Zen 69 kishu no shōkai to tsukaikata (スプリングカメラでいこう: 全69機種の紹介と使い方, Let's try spring cameras: Presentation and use of 69 machines). Tokyo: Shashinkogyo Syuppan-sha, 2004. ISBN 4-87956-072-3. Pp.180–7. Item 187.
  • "Kokusan shashinki no kōtei kakaku" (国産写真機の公定価格, Set prices of the Japanese cameras), listing Japanese camera production as of October 25, 1940 and setting the retail prices from December 10, 1940. Published in Asahi Camera January 1941 and reproduced in Shōwa 10—40nen kōkoku ni miru kokusan kamera no rekishi (昭和10〜40年広告にみる国産カメラの歴史, Japanese camera history as seen in advertisements, 1935—1965). Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1994. ISBN 4-02-330312-7. Pp.108—9. Type 5, sections 5 and 6A.
  • Kankyū Hyakkaten. Leaflet for the New Midget II, Romax, Semi Leotax and Well Standard. Date not indicated. Document reproduced in this Flickr album by Rebollo_fr.
  • Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin (日本写真興業通信). Hyaku-gō goto jūkai no kiroku (百号ごと十回の記録, Ten records, every hundred issues). Tokyo: Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin Sha (日本写真興業通信社), 1967. No ISBN number. Advertisements on p.35, corresponding to p.1 of the December 15, 1939 issue, on p.85, corresponding to the third cover of the April 20, 1948 issue, on p.97, corresponding to p.11 of the January 10, 1951 issue, and on p.116, corresponding to p.18 of the October 1, 1953 issue.
  • Photo Art. Advertisements by Misuzu Shōkai in December 1949 (p.67) and May 1950 (p.99).
  • Photo Art December 1949. "Ōru kokusan kamera" (オール国産カメラ, All of Japanese cameras). Pp.34–41.
  • Photo Art May 1950. "Kokusan kamera" (国産カメラ, Japanese cameras). Pp.42–7.
  • "Shōwa-ki no shashin gyōkai" (昭和期の写真業界, Photography business world of the Showa era.) Extract of an article in Nihon Shashin Kōgyō Tsūshin, reproduced in Awano, p.6 of Camera Collectors' News no.271.

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