Baby Pearl

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The Baby Pearl is a Japanese 3×4 folding camera, made from 1934 to 1950 by Konishiroku (predecessor of Konica).[1]

See also the Pearl (for plates and rollfilm), Pearl No.2, self-erecting 6×9 Pearl, Pearlette, Semi Pearl, Pearl (I), II and III and Pearl IV.

Contents

General description

Body

The Baby Pearl is a vertical folder inspired by the Zeiss Ikon Baby Ikonta, but not a dead copy. It has incurved struts and a folding optical finder. The body edges are either black or chrome finished. The name BABY PEARL is embossed in the leather covering at the front.

The back is hinged to the left and is locked by a sliding bar on the right — as seen by the photographer holding the camera horizontally. The film is advanced by a knob at the bottom right, and there are two red windows in the back to control its position. On most cameras, the main release is on the shutter casing and the folding bed release is close to the advance knob, but the last postwar examples have a body release and bed opening button symmetrically placed around the viewfinder (see below).

The dimensions are about 100×70×30mm, and the weight is little more than 300g.[2]

Shutter

The shutter is a Rox (B, 25, 50, 100), made by the company itself. The speed is selected by an index at the top of the shutter casing. The Rox shutter is everset on most cameras, but the last examples with body release have a cocking lever.

The shutter plate is always marked ROX at the top and has the manufacturer's name at the bottom. Its design was changed on various occasions: it is plain black on the earliest examples, then black with the aperture scale inscribed on a chrome rim, then a pair of chrome lines was added on either side of the lens (see the evolution below).

The manufacturer's name at the bottom appears as Rokuoh-sha or Konishiroku. The production of the Rox shutter started in the Rokuoh-sha factory, but from 1936 onwards it was actually transferred to Yamamoto Kōjō, a subcontractor of Konishiroku.[3] It is not known if Yamamoto Kōjō acted as a subcontractor until the end, or if Konishiroku took over the production again at some time.

Lens

Four different lenses were mounted on the Baby Pearl, all with 50mm focal length and focusing by turning the front element. The Optor f/6.3 and f/4.5 lenses are triplets designed by Konishiroku; they were reputedly manufactured by Asahi Kōgaku (predecessor of Pentax), but their production was perhaps taken back by Konishiroku at some time (see below).[4] The Hexar Ser.1 f/4.5 is a four-element lens, designed and made by Konishiroku, and an f/3.8 version was introduced in June 1937.[5]

The lens bezel is black on the early cameras, and chrome on the later ones. The Optor and Hexar Ser.1 lenses made until the end of the war have Rokuoh-sha markings. The Hexar lenses made after 1945 have Konishiroku markings, without "Ser.1" except for the earliest ones. Lens coating was applied on the last model with body release.[6]

Rokuoh-sha and Konishiroku markings

The manufacturer's name appears — either as Rokuoh-sha or Konishiroku — on the lens rim, at the bottom of the shutter face, and sometimes stamped on the leather covering of the back. "Rokuoh-sha" was the name of the manufacturing branch of the Konishiroku company until World War II. It seems that this name came into disuse after the main company was reorganized as Konishiroku Shashin Kōgyō in April 1943. The civilian production was probably stopped around that time, and it seems fair to assume that all the cameras with Konishiroku markings were made after 1945.[7]

Evolution

Original model, knurled advance knob

The Baby Pearl was introduced in May 1934.[8] The original model is mainly recognized by the knurled advance knob, inspired by that of contemporary Voigtländer cameras. The two red windows are uncovered, and have a characteristic shape with a round indent allowing to see the number before it comes into the proper position.

The viewfinder is all black and has a rectangular eyepiece. At least some examples have a hairline cross sight on the viewfinder's front window.[9] Inside the body, it is said that the pressure plate does not cover the full exposure chamber, but only a small portion on the supply side.[10]

The shutter plate is plain black and has the aperture scale engraved in white letters, with a red dot between 8 and 11. The lens bezel is black with white markings, such as Rokuoh-sha N°xxxx Optor 1:6.3 f=50m.m.

One of the earliest advertisements, dated May 1934, shows this model and already lists three lens options:[11]

Cumulative changes and regular black model

New metal knob

At the beginning of its production run, the Baby Pearl went through a number of minor changes. After a few months,[14] the advance knob was replaced by a larger one with fine mills. (At least one example is known with this knob and the older shutter plate.)[15]

New shutter rim

Soon after, the shutter plate received a nickel rim, with the aperture scale engraved in black letters and the same red dot between 8 and 11.[16] The nickel rim makes the shutter look like the modern rim-set units, but it is actually fixed. On some examples, the hump-shaped release lever was replaced by a triangular part.

Smaller red windows

The next significant change was the fitting of smaller rectangular red windows, which would become typical of the Konishiroku rollfilm cameras. At the beginning, these red windows were uncovered.[17] This version with the small uncovered windows is very uncommon, and is only known from Masaki's article.

Bakelite knob, removable pressure plate

Very soon, the advance knob was replaced again. At least one example is known with a different metal knob, whose design is similar to the knob mounted on Pearlette cameras from 1933 to 1935.[18] The definitive model has a black bakelite part instead.[19] It is said that the next change was the introduction of a removable pressure plate, covering the whole exposure chamber.[20]

Covered red windows

The last cumulative change was the addition of red window covers, controlled by a single slider.[21] These were certainly already fitted when Rokuoh-sha introduced the Sakura Pan F panchromatic film in January 1936.[22] After that, the camera's features reached a stable state, resulting in the regular black model, produced until late 1937.

Chrome model, new shutter face

The chrome model was announced in January 1938.[23] The body edges were metal finished, and the smaller metal parts were plated with chrome instead of nickel. The viewfinder's rear part was modified with chrome plating and a circular eyepiece.

A few transitional examples were made with the chrome finish and the older shutter plate,[24] before it was replaced by a newer machine-stamped plate, with metal strips on both sides of the lens. At first, the new shutter face was nickel-finished and the lens bezel remained black with white engravings.[25] Then the shutter parts became chrome-finished and the lens bezel was replaced by a chrome rim with black engravings.[26]

The Optor f/6.3 lens option was sold in limited numbers on the chrome-finished model, and has always been observed with a black bezel.[27]

It is said that a special edition of the chrome model was made with red or green leather covering, called the Lady's Pearl,[28] but no surviving example has yet been observed.

Luxury f/3.8 version

In June 1937,[29] some months before the introduction of the chrome model, a luxury version was released with a Hexar f/3.8 lens. The announce column in Sakura no Kuni shows the price of ¥55.[30] This version is very uncommon, and was certainly produced in limited numbers.

At least one example, pictured in articles by Awano and Masaki, is known with a black bezel, marked Hexar Ser.1 with a low three-digit serial number.[31] It has the older black body and viewfinder, combined with the new shutter face described above. This might indicate that the new shutter plate was first introduced on the luxury model, before the introduction of the chrome model,[32] or that this particular camera is a transitional example assembled with mismatched parts.

A couple other examples, pictured in Sugiyama and in Awano's article, have a chrome bezel, marked Hexar Ser.II with a four-digit serial number.[33] (The new lens name perhaps reflects a change in the optical formula.) They have the chrome body and viewfinder, and the new shutter face.

Documents dated 1939–40

It seems that the pictures used in contemporary advertisements were outdated and do not reflect the actual version sold at the time. Advertisements in the January, May and September 1939 issues of Asahi Camera use the same picture, showing a very early camera, with the earliest type of shutter plate and the old viewfinder eyepiece.[34] The picture was retouched for the May issue only, pretending that the camera has chrome body edges and a chrome viewfinder. The January advertisement lists all four lens options:

The May and September advertisements only list the Optor lenses.

The official list of set prices compiled in October 1940 and published in January 1941 lists three versions, called "Baby Pearl I" (¥28), "Baby Pearl II" (¥48) and "Baby Pearl III" (¥65).[36] These probably correspond to the f/6.3, f/4.5 and f/3.8 lenses respectively. (The rigid system of set prices does not distinguish between the three-element Optor and the four-element Hexar.)

Semi-chrome model

At some time, the chrome finish was abandoned and the camera edges were covered with black lacquer again. The transition perhaps occurred in the late 1930s or early 1940s (though at least some cameras were surely made after 1945, see below).[37]

This new generation of black cameras is sometimes called semi-chrome by today's collectors.[38] All have the new chrome-plated viewfinder with round eyepiece and the new shutter plate design with chrome-finished parts. (None has the transitional nickel-finished shutter plate, probably indicating that the production of black lacquered cameras was completely displaced for some time by the chrome model.)

All the semi-chrome cameras have a chrome lens bezel,[39] except for those with the Optor f/6.3 which retained the black bezel.[40] This lens option is very uncommon and was probably withdrawn soon after the introduction of semi-chrome finish.

The last wartime mention of the camera is in the April 1943 government inquiry on Japanese camera production (with no picture).[41] This document lists only two versions, with the Optor f/4.5 and Hexar f/4.5 lens — the latter is called "Baby Pearl II". In this document, the Optor lens is registered as made by Konishiroku too, perhaps indicating that its manufacture was taken back from Asahi Kōgaku at some time.[42]

At least some semi-chrome cameras have the words ROKUOH–SHA and MADE IN JAPAN embossed in the leather covering of the back door, near the hinge.[43] The Rokuoh-sha name was apparently dropped in 1943, and these pieces of leather covering were certainly stamped before the end of the war, though an indication of origin in English language may look unnatural on a Japanese wartime product.

Postwar period and Konishiroku markings

The production of the Baby Pearl was resumed in 1945 in the Yodobashi plant,[44] initially drawing on the stock of spare parts.[45] It is said that the camera was released in October 1945 with the Optor f/4.5 and in March 1946 with the Hexar f/4.5.[46]

Few postwar documents are known to mention the Baby Pearl. A single advertisement is reported, in the October 1946 issue of Ars Camera.[47] The price was set on 17 June 1946 by the Japanese Ministry of Finance, to ¥910 for the version with Optor and to ¥960 for the version with Hexar.[48] By September 1947, the set price for the Hexar version was ¥2,440, reflecting the high inflation of the time.[49] The camera is mentioned again in an article in Photo Art December 1949 on Japanese camera production, which lists the Optor f/4.5 and Hexar f/4.5 lenses, and gives the price category as "¥5,000 to ¥10,000".[50]

As said above, it seems that all the cameras with Konishiroku markings were made in the postwar period. None of these has yet been observed with an Optor lens. This perhaps means that all the cameras assembled after 1945 with the Optor lens used old parts marked Rokuoh-sha, making them indistinguishable from the wartime model. However, a few contemporary Semi Pearl are known with an Optor lens marked Konishiroku, and similar Baby Pearl might exist too.

The earliest identifiable postwar cameras have an intermediate form of lens marking: Konishiroku N°xxxxx Hexar Ser.1 1:4.5 f=50m.m, and still have the Rokuoh-sha marking on the shutter.[51] Some still display the ROKUOH–SHA and MADE IN JAPAN embossings on the back, and some are known to have the same removable pressure plate as the prewar and wartime models. These Baby Pearl were possibly assembled from stocks of camera bodies, complete with shutter and leather covering, and only lacking a lens.

The Rokuoh-sha markings were gradually phased out. A combination of the Konishiroku and Hexar Ser.1 lens markings, together with a Konishiroku marking on the shutter face, is visible in the picture of a Baby Pearl in Photo Art December 1949, showing a camera that was perhaps assembled a few years earlier.[52]

Later examples have a shorter lens marking: Konishiroku N°xxxxx Hexar 1:4.5 f=50mm, paired with the name Konishiroku on the shutter plate.[53] It seems that the embossings on the back cover became KONISHIROKU and MADE IN JAPAN (stamped in relief) around the same time.[54] The removable pressure plate was also replaced by a fixed pressure plate attached to the back door, a sure indication that the company was no longer relying on wartime stocks only, but was also making new body parts.[55]

Body release

Towards the end of the production, the Baby Pearl was modified again by the addition of a body release and lens coating.[56] The body release was added on the viewfinder's left, and the folding bed release was moved to a new position, on the other side of the viewfinder. The former release lever was replaced by a shutter cocking lever, shaped exactly the same. The bakelite advance knob was replaced by a larger metal part. (One isolated example has been observed with an advance key instead of the metal knob, but it is not known if this fitting is original or not.)[57] All the examples known so far have the Hexar f/4.5 lens with the newer markings and a number in the 6xxxx range.[58] At least some cameras have MADE IN OCCUPIED JAPAN embossed in the back,[59] instead of MADE IN JAPAN found on earlier versions.

The production of the Baby Pearl was stopped in late 1950.[60] It is said that about 12,000 units were made in the postwar period.[61]

Accessory 35mm adapter

An adapter was supplied by a third-party manufacturer to load the Baby Pearl with 35mm film, consisting of an exposure mask, a pressure plate, and special spools in reloadable cassettes.[62]

Notes

  1. Dates: Miyazaki, pp.10–3. The Baby Pearl has the odd distinction of being the only camera to be named in John W. Dower's Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (New York: Norton, 1999). Dower suggests that it was a postwar innovation and says that it was aimed at GI buyers. Most postwar examples would indeed have gone to GIs (as was true for most models of camera in the late forties, when most of the Japanese population was desperately poor); however, the design was prewar and the "Pearl" name goes all the way back to 1909.
  2. Dimensions of the first model reported in Masaki, p.111 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4: 101×72×30mm and 310g. Dimensions reported in Sakurai, p.11 of Camera Collectors' News no.127: 100×64×30mm and 330g.
  3. This page at R.Konishi Rokuoh-sha.
  4. Optor manufactured by Asahi Kōgaku: Sakai, p.12 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10, Lewis, p.182, this page of the R. Konishi website. The lens is registered as made by Konishiroku in the "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" ("Inquiry into Japanese cameras"), lens items Jc15 and Ld1 (f/4.5 lens for the Baby Pearl and f/6.3 lens for the Pearlette).
  5. Date: Masaki, p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10.
  6. Masaki, p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10; Lewis, p.51.
  7. Miyazaki, pp.12–3; Masaki, p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10.
  8. Masaki, p.111 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4 and p.45 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10; Tanaka, p.59 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.8; Awano, p.1 of Camera Collectors' News no.42; Miyazaki, p.10. See also the column in Ars Camera June 1934 announcing the camera, reproduced in Ikeuchi, p.15 of Camera Collectors' News no.66.
  9. The cross sight is visible in the advertisement dated May 1934 reproduced in Masaki, p.45 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10, and the author says that this is a feature of the first model. See also the advertisement in Sakura no Kuni September 1934, reproduced in Masaki, p.111 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4.
  10. Masaki, p.45 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10; Tanaka, p.59 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.8.
  11. Advertisement reproduced in Masaki, p.45 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10.
  12. This version has been observed in online auctions.
  13. This version is pictured in Masaki, p.111 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4 and p.45 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10, and in this page at R.Konishi Rokuoh-sha.
  14. Masaki, p.45 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10, says that the change occurred in early 1935 but this is perhaps only a guess.
  15. Example with Hexar Ser.1 f/4.5 pictured in this page of the Yamada Camera Museum.
  16. Large metal knob and nickel shutter rim: examples pictured in Masaki, p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 (picture no.4), in Lewis, p.51, in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.428, in McKeown, p.537, in Sugiyama, item 1151, here and here at Junk Binbō, and observed in online auctions.
  17. Large metal knob and small uncovered windows: example pictured in Masaki, p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 (picture no.5).
  18. Example pictured in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.10, and in this page of the Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology (this is perhaps the same camera).
  19. Bakelite knob and small uncovered windows: reported by Masaki, p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10. The pictures no.6–7 are said to correspond to this variant, with or without the removable pressure plate.
  20. Masaki, p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10.
  21. Covered red windows, engraved shutter plate: example pictured in this page of the Yamada Camera Museum. This is also reported for picture no.8 in Masaki, p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10. The examples pictured in Sugiyama, item 1152, in Zaisu Ikon, p.6 of Camera Collectors' News no.223, in this page at Tomei Collection and in this page at Awane-Photo's camera museum date from the same period, but it is not known if they have red window covers or not. One isolated camera has been observed with the black-finished body and viewfinder, red window covers and the new chrome-finished shutter plate and lens bezel, probably because its lens and shutter unit was swapped at some time.
  22. This is suggested by Masaki, p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10. Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.338, says that the camera was modified in 1935. Tanaka, p.59 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.8, says that the new features were introduced in January 1935, and transitional examples were made after that date, mixing old and new parts, but this seems dubious.
  23. Date: Masaki, p.112 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4 and p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10; Awano, p.1 of Camera Collectors' News no.42.
  24. Examples pictured in Masaki, p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 (picture no.10), in Omoide no supuringu-kamera-ten, p.18, in Sakurai, pp.12–3 of Camera Collectors' News no.127, and observed in an online auction.
  25. Examples pictured in Masaki, p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 (picture no.11), offered by a Japanese dealer, and observed in online auctions.
  26. Example pictured in Masaki, p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 (picture no.13), and examples observed in online auctions.
  27. Examples pictured in Omoide no supuringu-kamera-ten, p.18, and observed in an online auction.
  28. Red or green covering: Masaki, p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10. Lady's Pearl: Lewis, p.51.
  29. Date: Masaki, p.112 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4 and p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10; Awano, p.1 of Camera Collectors' News no.42.
  30. Document reproduced in Awano, p.3 of Camera Collectors' News no.42.
  31. Example pictured in Awano, Camera Collectors' News no.42, and in Masaki, p.111 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4 (picture no.7) and p.46 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 (picture no.9). The lens number is 263.
  32. This is suggested by Masaki, pp.46–7 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10.
  33. Examples pictured in Sugiyama, item 1154, and in Awano, Camera Collectors' News no.42. The latter has lens no.2012.
  34. Advertisements reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.82.
  35. This price is barely legible.
  36. "Kokusan shashinki no kōtei kakaku", type 1, sections 3, 4B and 6B.
  37. Masaki, p.112 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4, says 1938, and Tanaka, p.59 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.8, says 1939. The chrome model is not uncommon today on relative terms, and this certainly indicates that its production lasted at least a few years.
  38. "Semi-chrome": Masaki, p.112 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4 and p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10, Miyazaki, p.183.
  39. Examples pictured in this article, in Masaki, p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 (picture no.14), in Sugiyama, item 1153, in Zaisu Ikon, p.7 of Camera Collectors' News no.57, offered by a Japanese dealer, and observed in online auctions.
  40. Example observed in an online auction.
  41. "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" ("Inquiry into Japanese cameras"), items 172–3.
  42. "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" ("Inquiry into Japanese cameras"), lens item Jc15.
  43. Example pictured in this page, and examples observed in online auctions.
  44. Yodobashi plant: Tanaka, p.60 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.8.
  45. From spare parts: Miyazaki, p.10.
  46. The table on p.79 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 lists the model with Optor f/4.5, dated October 1945, and that with Hexar f/4.5, dated March 1946. The table in Miyazaki, p.183, lists the same two models and confusingly adds a separate "postwar semi-chrome model", dated 1945. Masaki, p.112 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4, and Tanaka, p.60 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.8, say that the production began in October 1945, and Miyazaki, p.12, says that the sales really began in March 1946. All these are probably based on some internal archive kept by the Konica company, mentioning the two dates.
  47. Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.358.
  48. See full reference in the page on Japanese prices. Lewis, p.60, says ¥960 for the Baby Pearl, but does not specify the version. Tanaka, p.60 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.8, says ¥910 in 1946 for the version with Optor lens, and the table on p.79 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 says ¥910 for the version with Hexar lens in March 1946.
  49. Lewis, p.62.
  50. Photo Art December 1949, pp.36–7.
  51. Examples observed in online auctions.
  52. Picture in Photo Art December 1949, p.36.
  53. Examples pictured in Masaki, p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 (picture no.15), in Miyazaki, p.12, and observed in an online auction.
  54. Example pictured in here at Junk Binbō.
  55. Example pictured in Masaki, p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 (pictures no.15–16).
  56. Date: Miyazaki, p.183, says that the last model was released in 1950. Masaki, p.112 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4, says March 1946 but this is certainly a confusion. Lens coating: Masaki, p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10; Tanaka, p.60 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.8; Lewis, p.51.
  57. Example observed in an online auction.
  58. Examples pictured in Masaki, p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10 (picture no.17), in Miyazaki, p.12, in Zaisu Ikon, p.6 of Camera Collectors' News no.223, and observed in online auctions.
  59. Example observed in an online auction.
  60. Miyazaki, p.13, and Tanaka, pp.59–60 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.8, say December 1950. Masaki says October 1950 on p.111 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4, and "late 1950" on p.47 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10.
  61. Miyazaki, p.13.
  62. Accessory pictured in Masaki, p.112 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.4.

Bibliography

Original documents

  • "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" (国産写真機ノ現状調査, Inquiry into Japanese cameras), listing Japanese camera production as of April 1943. Reproduced in Supuringu kamera de ikou: Zen 69 kishu no shōkai to tsukaikata (スプリングカメラでいこう: 全69機種の紹介と使い方, Let's try spring cameras: Presentation and use of 69 machines). Tokyo: Shashinkogyo Syuppan-sha, 2004. ISBN 4-87956-072-3. Pp.180–7. Items 172–3.
  • "Kokusan shashinki no kōtei kakaku" (国産写真機の公定価格, Set prices of the Japanese cameras), listing Japanese camera production as of October 25, 1940 and setting the retail prices from December 10, 1940. Published in Asahi Camera January 1941 and reproduced in Shōwa 10—40nen kōkoku ni miru kokusan kamera no rekishi (昭和10〜40年広告にみる国産カメラの歴史, Japanese camera history as seen in advertisements, 1935—1965). Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1994. ISBN 4-02-330312-7. Pp.108—9. Type 1, sections 3, 4B and 6B.
  • Photo Art December 1949. "Ōru kokusan kamera" (オール国産カメラ, All of Japanese cameras). Pp.34–41.

Not seen:

  • Yoshikawa Hayao (吉川速男). Watakushi no Bebī Pāru (私のベビーパール, My Baby Pearl). Tokyo: Genkōsha, September 1938.
  • Yoshikawa Hayao (吉川速男). Bebī Pāru no dainiho (ベビーパールの第二歩, Second step with a Baby Pearl). Tokyo: Genkōsha, March 1939.

Recent sources

  • Asahi Camera (アサヒカメラ) editorial staff. Shōwa 10–40nen kōkoku ni miru kokusan kamera no rekishi (昭和10–40年広告にみる国産カメラの歴史, Japanese camera history as seen in advertisements, 1935–1965). Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1994. ISBN 4-02-330312-7. Items 168 and 680. (See also the advertisements for item 170 and the pictures pp.10 and 428.)
  • Awano Mikio (粟野幹男). "Hekisā F3.8 tsuki Bebī Pāru" (ヘキサーF3.8付ベビーパール, Baby Pearl with a Hexar f/3.8). In Camera Collectors' News no.43 (January 1981, the cover wrongly has "no.42"). Nishinomiya: Camera Collectors News-sha. (Detailed article on the f/3.8 version, showing two actual examples.)
  • Ikeuchi Kazuo (池内和夫). "Hanza Kyanon shikō" (ハンザキャノン私考, Personal thoughts on the Hansa Canon). In Camera Collectors' News no.66 (December 1982). Nishinomiya: Camera Collectors News-sha. P.15. (Contains a reproduction of a column in Ars Camera June 1934, announcing the release of the Baby Pearl, and no other specific information on the camera.)
  • The Japanese Historical Camera. 日本の歴史的カメラ (Nihon no rekishiteki kamera). 2nd ed. Tokyo: JCII Camera Museum, 2004. P.19.
  • Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.10, September 1987. No ISBN number. Konishiroku kamera no rekishi (小西六カメラの歴史, special issue on Konishiroku). Table of postwar Konishiroku and Konica cameras, p.79.
  • Lewis, Gordon, ed. The History of the Japanese Camera. Rochester, N.Y.: George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography & Film, 1991. ISBN 0-935398-17-1 (paper), 0-935398-16-3 (hard). Pp.51, 56, 60, 62.
  • Masaki Masayoshi (正木正佳). "Kogata kamera no bēshikku Baby Pearl." (小型カメラのベーシック・Baby Pearl. The Baby Pearl: small camera basics.) Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.4, March 1984. No ISBN number. Meiki no keifu (名機の系譜, special issue on famous camera families). Pp.111–2. (Detailed article, slightly earlier than the other article by Masaki.)
  • Masaki Masayoshi (正木正佳). "Konica history 6. Bebī Pāru." (Konica history 6. ベビーパール. Baby Pearl.) Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.10, September 1987. No ISBN number. Konishiroku kamera no rekishi (小西六カメラの歴史, special issue on Konishiroku). Pp.45–7. (Thoroughly detailed article tracing the camera's evolution.)
  • McKeown, James M. and Joan C. McKeown's Price Guide to Antique and Classic Cameras, 12th Edition, 2005-2006. USA, Centennial Photo Service, 2004. ISBN 0-931838-40-1 (hardcover). ISBN 0-931838-41-X (softcover). Pp.537–8.
  • Miyazaki Shigemoto (宮崎繁幹). Konika kamera no 50-nen: Konika I-gata kara Hekisā RF e (コニカカメラの50年:コニカI型からヘキサーRFへ, Fifty years of Konica cameras: From the Konica I to the Hexar RF). Tokyo: Asahi Sonorama, 2003. ISBN 4-257-12038-X. Pp.10–3 and 183.
  • Omoide no supuringu-kamera-ten (思い出のスプリングカメラ展, Exhibition of beloved self-erecting cameras). Tokyo: JCII Camera Museum, 1992. (Exhibition catalogue, no ISBN number.) P.18. (Contains a picture and a short descriptive text.)
  • Sakai Shūichi (酒井修一). "'Anbako' kara 'ōtofōkasu' he: kamera no hensen to tomo ni ayunda 114-nen" (「暗函」から「オートフォーカス」へ・カメラの変遷と共に歩んだ114年, From 'camera obscura' to 'autofocus': 114 years of camera evolution). Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.10, September 1987. No ISBN number. Konishiroku kamera no rekishi (小西六カメラの歴史, special issue on Konishiroku). Pp.8–13.
  • Sakurai Minoru (桜井実). "Bebī Pāru daikaizō-ki" (ベビーパール大改造記, Story of a heavily transformed Baby Pearl). In Camera Collectors' News no.127 (January 1988). Nishinomiya: Camera Collectors News-sha. Pp.11–4. (Description of a Baby Pearl transformed by the author with a lens and shutter taken from a Konilette.)
  • Sugiyama, Kōichi (杉山浩一); Naoi, Hiroaki (直井浩明); Bullock, John R. The Collector's Guide to Japanese Cameras. 国産カメラ図鑑 (Kokusan kamera zukan). Tokyo: Asahi Sonorama, 1985. ISBN 4-257-03187-5. Items 1151–4.
  • Tanaka Masao (田中政雄). "Nihon no supuringu kamera: Konishiroku" (日本のスプリングカメラ Konishiroku, The spring cameras of Japan: Konishiroku). Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.8, September 1986. No ISBN number. Supuringu kamera (スプリングカメラ, special issue on spring cameras). Pp.58–61.
  • Zaisu Ikon (座椅子遺恨, probably a pseudonym of Y. Saji). "Besuto sanka (B-1)" (ベスト讃歌[B-1], Vest hymn [B-1]). In Camera Collectors' News no.57 (March 1982). Nishinomiya: Camera Collectors News-sha. P.7. (Contains a picture and a short descriptive text.)
  • Zaisu Ikon (座椅子遺恨, probably a pseudonym of Y. Saji). "Zoku Besuto sanka (B-1)" (続ベスト讃歌[B-1], Vest hymn continued [B-1]). In Camera Collectors' News no.223 (January 1996). Nishinomiya: Camera Collectors News-sha. P.6. (Contains two pictures and a short descriptive text.)

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