Okada and Daiichi

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Okada Kōgaku, later Daiichi Kōgaku, then Zenobia Kōgaku was a Japanese camera maker based in Tokyo.

Okada should not be confused with Okaya, and Daiichi Kōgaku is unrelated to the wartime Daiichi Kikō and Daiichi Kōki.

Contents

History

Until 1945

Okada Kōgaku Seiki K.K. (岡田光学精機株式会社)[1] was perhaps already active in the mid-1930s: many sources say that it made the original Walz 3×4 camera in 1936–7, attributed to "Walz Camera Works" in original advertisements.[2] From 1940, the company made the Okaco and Waltax 4.5×6 folders. The Kolex lens and Dabit-Super shutter mounted on these cameras were made by the company itself, which was also making binoculars.[3] The company name was often abbreviated to Okako (岡光, Okakō, from Okada gaku), and the cameras have an OKAKO TOKYO logo. In 1943, the address was Toshima-ku Nishisugamo-chō 4–276 (東京都豊島区西巣鴨町4–276).[4]

From Okada to Daiichi

The company survived the war and continued the Waltax series. In 1948 it was still called Okada Kōgaku Seiki K.K., and its address was Kita-ku Shimo-Jūjōmachi 1894 (東京都北区下十條町一八九四). Around 1949–50, it was using the name Okada Optical Industrial Co., Ltd. on documents in English language.[5] The address changed around that time, to Itabashi-ku Shimura-Maeno-chō 1045 (東京都板橋区志村前野町1045), and remained there at least until 1954.[6] In 1949—50, Okada made various subminiature cameras developed by the engineer Ishiwata Shigeo (石渡茂雄): the Hit-type Kolt, the pistol-shaped Gemmy, and the Camera "A" and Camera "B" made on request of the US military.[7]

Around 1951, the company changed its name to Daiichi Kōgaku K.K. (第一光学株式会社) — a document dated December 1951 seems to imply that the name change was fairly recent.[8] After the change of the company name, a few Waltax cameras were made with a new shutter renamed D.O.C.-Rapid — the initials certainly stand for Daiichi Optical Company, a translation of Daiichi Kōgaku K.K.[9]

The Waltax was renamed Zenobia in early 1952, with almost no change in the features, and the Bio-Kolex lens became the Hesper. The reason for the near simultaneous change of the company name and of the brand names of the camera, lens and shutter is unknown. The Zenobiaflex 6×6 TLR was introduced in 1953. The D.O.C.-Rapid leaf shutter was upgraded and renamed Daiichi-Rapid around 1953, and the Hesper lens was recomputed as the Neo-Hesper around 1954.

Financial problems and labour conflict

In 1954, the company was producing 3,000 cameras per month and had 450 employees, but it did not anticipate the sudden loss of popularity of the folding cameras and the switch of the market towards 35mm cameras.[10] In May, the announcement that 125 people would be laid off caused conflicts with the trade unions. A lockout was declared in June during ten days, and the workers reacted by occupying the factory and organizing the production themselves. The conflict ended at the end of June, but the company had unpaid notes which caused a suspension of banking transactions. Production remained stopped for two months, resuming in late August, and 200 people voluntarily retired. The financial situation of the company was still bad, and in March 1955 the factory was closed and all the remaining workers were dismissed.[11]

Before its failure, the company made a preseries of Leica copies called Ichicon-35, perhaps originally designed by Kumagai Genji. The camera was finally released in mid 1956 by Mejiro Kōgaku as the Honor S1.

Reorganized as Zenobia

The company was reorganized as Zenobia Kōgaku K.K. (ゼノビア光学株式会社) in February 1956,[12] adopting the brand name of the cameras. The address was initially the same as used by Daiichi, then it became Itabashi-ku Azusawa 2, 4 (東京都板橋区小豆沢2の4) in 1957–8.[13] The company sold some late Zenobia and Zenobiaflex models, then developed the Zenobia 35 fixed-lens rangefinder and remained in existence until late 1958.[14]

Camera list

120 film

127 film

  • Walz (3×4cm strut folder)

35mm film

  • Ichicon-35 (Leica copy, c.1954—5), some examples were perhaps called "Zenobia 35"
  • Zenobia 35 (rangefinder camera with leaf shutter, 1957—8)

Subminiature

Other

  • E. Hesper 50mm f/3.5 enlarging lens (four elements, click-stop diaphragm)[15]
  • Dabit filters (Okada period)[16]

Notes

  1. Full name: prospect pictured here at the AJCC, and "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" ("Inquiry into Japanese cameras").
  2. Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.344 (item 346); Sugiyama, item 1262; McKeown, p.745.
  3. Lens and shutter made by the company: "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" ("Inquiry into Japanese cameras"), lens items La1 and Lb34 and shutter item 18-R-2. Binoculars: wartime advertisement reproduced in Nostalgic Camera by Toshio Inamura.
  4. "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" ("Inquiry into Japanese cameras").
  5. English user manual for the Kolt, observed in an online auction.
  6. Source: English user manual for the Kolt, observed in an online auction, advertisement on p.11 of the supplement to the December 1951 issue of Photo Art, and advertisements dated April 1952 to April 1954 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.144.
  7. Yazawa, p.11 of Camera Collectors' News no.233.
  8. Supplement to the December 1951 issue of Photo Art, p.11.
  9. Many sources attribute all the postwar Waltax to Daiichi Kōgaku but they are wrong: Sugiyama, items 1430–2, Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.375 (items 1062–8), McKeown, p.239. Lewis, pp.61 and 75, attributes the Waltax II to Okada and the Waltax Senior to "Okada, later Daiichi".
  10. 3,000 cameras per month, 450 employees: extract of the Labour Year Book of Japan 1956, published in November 1955.
  11. All details: extract of the Labour Year Book of Japan 1956, published in November 1955.
  12. Date: Awano, p.2 of Camera Collectors' News no.35 and p.56 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.37.
  13. Advertisements dated June 1956 to January 1958, reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.252.
  14. The last advertisements and articles listed in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.389, are dated November 1958.
  15. Advertisement dated 1954 reproduced at the Shashin-Bako website
  16. Set of five 32mm filters observed in an online auction.

Bibliography

Links

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In French:

In Japanese:

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