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The Ruvinal folder and Ruvinalflex TLR are attributed to a company either called Shōei Kōgaku (昭栄光学) or Shōei Sangyō (昭栄産業), but no original document has yet been found to confirm this.[1] The cameras appeared in 1950 and were distributed by Maki Shōji, successor of Eikōdō, whose name became Eikōdō again in 1953.


  1. Shōei Kōgaku: Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.373. Shōei Sangyō: McKeown, p.891, Supuringu kamera de ikou, p.113, and Lewis, p.73.