scale on a Leningrad meter
image by AWCam (Image rights)
GOST (Russian ГОСТ) is an abbreviation of "GOsudarstvennyi STandard", which is Russian for "Government Standard". In photography, GOST refers to arithmetic film speed ratings used in the former Soviet Union, similar to ASA.
The system was introduced in October 1951 by the GOST 2817-50 standard, replacing the 1928 version of the H & D system in the USSR.