The SX-70 is a folding single lens reflex Land Camera first produced by the Polaroid Corporation in 1972. It was the first instant SLR in history, and the first camera to use Polaroid's new integral print film, which developed automatically without the need for intervention from the photographer. This was revolutionary at the time, and a precursor to today's 600 and Spectra films.
The SX-70 has a folding body design, a 4-element 116mm f/8 glass lens, and an automatic exposure system. The camera allows manual focus as close as 10.4 inches (26.4cm), and has a shutter speed range from 1/175s to more than 10 seconds. A variety of models was offered, though all share the same basic design. Later models have an ultrasonic rangefinder autofocusing system known as Sonar. The Model 3 departs from the other models since it isn't a SLR, but instead has the viewfinder cut into the mirror hood.
All models feature an electronically controlled 'flash-bar' socket across the top of the camera, for insertion of a 10-times use flashbulb unit. Polaroid - as well as other companies - made external flash units that plugged into this socket.
As well as the folding SLR model, a variety of non-folding, 'consumer'-type models were released that also used to SX-70 integral film.
Accessories and Add-Ons
- Telephoto lens - A teleconverter (pictured below) which gave an effective 1.5x conversion (to 174mm)
- Close-Up kit - a set of macro-photography lenses coupled with flash adaptors/diffusers
- Self-timer - a clockwork timer that clips onto the side of the unit, covering the shutter release button
- External flash - Several models were made, including several by third parties.
- Tripod Adaptor - Many earlier models of the SX-70 did not have tripod mounts built-in.
Polaroid's SX-70 film was last produced in December 2005, and was sold out by March, 2006. What little remains often suffers from flat batteries or dried-up chemicals. A film called Artistic Time Zero could be manipulated as the photo developed, by pushing the colours around before they set. SX-70 five alternatives for shooting film, four of which will allow the use of readily available, inexpensive 600/779 film in their cameras, and the fifth of which provides a private-labelled 600 variant that can be used as if it actually were the earlier film.
Polaroid 600 Film
First, some SX-70 owners modify their cameras to use Polaroid's more recent 600 film, which is still available despite also being out of production. SX-70 and 600 film packs are slightly different, however, as the 600 pack has some extra little 'nubs' at the front of the pack. Users can use an old photo or a dark slide from a used Polaroid film cartridge to help slide the 600 film into the camera or just remove the nubs from the cartridge using nail clippers.
The real problem with using 600 or 779 film is that it is significantly faster than SX-70 film (ISO 640 as opposed to ISO 150), causing serious overexposure by the old cameras. To address this issue, some simply set the exposure dial all the way to "darken" and replace the small Neutral Density filter over the electronic eye with a similar clear filter. Polaroid itself recommends placing a 1-stop ND filter over the lens, and replacing the small ND filter over the electronic eye with a clear piece of plastic (as from a CD case). But, even with these modifications, SX-70 users may find they still need to set the exposure controls fully to "darken."
Second, perhaps the most effective solution is to adapt the SX-70's exposure sensors and electronics to accept the current film's higher speed. A professional conversion of the camera can be obtained from a technician on the US West Coast, and possibly others. He adapts the electronics of the camera so that the light sensors and circuits will operate at the ASA 640 speed of the current film [as opposed to the ASA 150 speed of the earlier film]. The benefit of this procedure is that the camera can take advantage of the far faster, modern film without the use of filters or other apparatus.
Fifth, and finally, an Austrian company has contracted with the Polaroid film plant in the Netherlands to Private Label a variant of 600 film for them, using the old TimeZero film cartridge design, without the annoying "nubs". As described by its US distributor, below, it works beautifully, on the same basic principle as the PackFilter, above. Its only disadvantage is that is costs more than twice as much as 600 film purchased from any mass merchandiser.
Polaroid SX-70 Blend Film
The Impossible Project
A company known as The Impossible Project, has introduced the newly-manufactured SX-70 compatible film in black & white on March 22, 2010, with the old Polaroid factory in Enschede being the manufacturing base. It is expected that 600 type film will be made available later in the year, along with possible color film packs, 8x10, and 20x24 sizes.
- George's SX-70 page
- SX-70 cameras on The Land List.
- SX-70 group on Flickr.
- Emulsional Problems - Gallery of SX-70 photographs by Michael Dare.
- SX70.dk - A Danish SX70 Polaroid Gallery by Lars Bregendahl Bro.
- Polanoid - A huge and ever-growing collection of more than 80,000 Polaroid photos.
- SX-70, SX-70 Alpha, SX-70 model 2, SX-70 Sonar and Short SX-70 manual (French) on www.collection-appareils.fr by Sylvain Halgand
- Polaroid SX-70 Alpha Gold in Andrys Stienstra's camera collection
- Information and online store of The Impossible Project.