Difference between revisions of "Nikon"

From Camera-wiki.org
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Auto Focus SLR)
m (Z Series)
 
(104 intermediate revisions by 15 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{| class="plainlinks floatright" width=250px style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="plainlinks floatright" width=250px style="text-align: center;"
|| [http://www.flickr.com/photos/rebollo_fr/3743241956/in/pool-camerapedia/ http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2663/3743241956_e442235f25_m_d.jpg]  
+
|| [http://www.flickr.com/photos/camerawiki/32845097717/in/pool-camerawiki https://live.staticflickr.com/65535/32845097717_6ab367fd4a_m_d.jpg]  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|| ''Registration of Nikon, Nikoflex and other trademarks. <small>Downloaded from the [http://www.ipdl.inpit.go.jp/homepg_e.ipdl IPDL], in accordance to the [http://www.ipdl.inpit.go.jp/notice_e.htm IPDL&nbsp;policies].</small>''
 
|| ''Registration of Nikon, Nikoflex and other trademarks. <small>Downloaded from the [http://www.ipdl.inpit.go.jp/homepg_e.ipdl IPDL], in accordance to the [http://www.ipdl.inpit.go.jp/notice_e.htm IPDL&nbsp;policies].</small>''
Line 7: Line 7:
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
The company was founded in 1917 as '''Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō K.K.''' (日本光学工業{{kabu}}) with the merger of two Japanese optical firms with military connections. The company's first camera lenses were designed in the 1920s by Heinrich Acht, who was invited with a team of German engineers (see [[Nippon Kōgaku lenses before 1945]]). After the departure of Acht, the lens design department was taken over by Sunayama Kakuya (砂山角野). The first lens mounted on a camera for civil use was the Anytar 12cm f/4.5 made in the early 1930s, renamed Nikkor in 1932. From 1934, the company supplied lenses to [[Canon|Seiki Kōgaku]] for the early [[Canon]] cameras.
+
The company was founded in 1917 as '''Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō K.K.''' (日本光学工業{{kabu}}, often rendered in English as '''Nippon Kogaku''' or, following as different convention, '''Nippon Kougaku''') with the merger of two Japanese optical firms with military connections. The company's first camera lenses were designed in the 1920s by Heinrich Acht, who was invited with a team of German engineers (see [[Nippon Kōgaku lenses before 1945]]). After the departure of Acht, the lens design department was taken over by Sunayama Kakuya (砂山角野). The first lens mounted on a camera for civil use was the Anytar 12cm f/4.5 made in the early 1930s, renamed [[Nikkor]] in 1932. From 1934, the company supplied lenses to [[Canon|Seiki Kōgaku]] for the early [[Canon]] cameras.
  
 
During World War II the company expanded significantly, supplying optical equipment to the Japanese military, including various [[Japanese aerial cameras|aerial cameras]].<REF> Its address in 1943 was Tōkyō-to Ōmori-ku Iriarai-chō<!-- or Iriarai-machi --> 5–345 (東京都大森区入新井町5–345). Source: {{Inquiry1943_short}}. (The source erroneously says 八新井町 for 入新井町.) </REF>
 
During World War II the company expanded significantly, supplying optical equipment to the Japanese military, including various [[Japanese aerial cameras|aerial cameras]].<REF> Its address in 1943 was Tōkyō-to Ōmori-ku Iriarai-chō<!-- or Iriarai-machi --> 5–345 (東京都大森区入新井町5–345). Source: {{Inquiry1943_short}}. (The source erroneously says 八新井町 for 入新井町.) </REF>
  
 
After the war, Nippon Kōgaku decided to produce cameras for civil use, and two projects were started: a 6×6cm TLR and a 35mm rangefinder camera. The TLR, called [[Nikoflex]], was shelved because of problems to find an adequate leaf shutter. The rangefinder camera was inspired by the German [[Contax]] and [[Leica]]. It is said that various names were considered, including Pentax, Nicca or Nikorette.<REF> Rotoloni, ''Nikon Rangefinder Camera'', p.7; [http://imaging.nikon.com/products/imaging/technology/d-archives/history_e/index.htm "Nikon Rangefinder Cameras"] in the Nikon official website. </REF> It was finally released as the [[Nikon rangefinder models|Nikon]] in 1948.
 
After the war, Nippon Kōgaku decided to produce cameras for civil use, and two projects were started: a 6×6cm TLR and a 35mm rangefinder camera. The TLR, called [[Nikoflex]], was shelved because of problems to find an adequate leaf shutter. The rangefinder camera was inspired by the German [[Contax]] and [[Leica]]. It is said that various names were considered, including Pentax, Nicca or Nikorette.<REF> Rotoloni, ''Nikon Rangefinder Camera'', p.7; [http://imaging.nikon.com/products/imaging/technology/d-archives/history_e/index.htm "Nikon Rangefinder Cameras"] in the Nikon official website. </REF> It was finally released as the [[Nikon rangefinder models|Nikon]] in 1948.
{| class="plainlinks floatright" width=250px style="text-align: center;"
+
{{Flickr_image
|| [http://www.flickr.com/photos/kayone73/5101368030/in/pool-camerapedia http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1164/5101368030_8d7af1f9f5_m.jpg]
+
|image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/kayone73/5101368030/in/pool-camerawiki
|-
+
|image= http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1164/5101368030_8d7af1f9f5_m.jpg
|| ''DSLR bodies, D-series<small>, image by Ed Kwon</small>''
+
|image_align= right
|}
+
|image_text= DSLR bodies, D-series
The Nikon I proved very successful, and was followed by a long line of [[Nikon rangefinder models|rangefinder cameras]]. In parallel, the company produced a range of Nikkor lenses both in [[39mm screw lenses|Leica mount]] and for its own rangefinder cameras. The quality of these lenses attracted the attention of many professional photographers and photojournalists desiring better results from the small [[35mm]] format.
+
|image_by= Ed Kwon
 +
|image_rights= non-commercial
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
The Nikon I proved very successful, and was followed by a long line of [[Nikon rangefinder models|rangefinder cameras]]. In parallel, the company produced a range of [[Nikkor]] lenses both in [[39mm screw lenses|Leica mount]] and for its own rangefinder cameras. The quality of these lenses attracted the attention of many professional photographers and photojournalists desiring better results from the small [[35mm]] format.
  
 
In 1959, Nippon Kōgaku introduced the [[Nikon F]], an advanced mechanical single lens reflex ([[SLR]]) camera that proved to be extraordinarily durable and reliable. With the F, Nikon introduced its philosophy of high-quality, low-friction, close-tolerance mechanisms requiring less lubricant than other cameras.{{source}} This workmanship had a practical side, as Nikons have accompanied more photographers to extreme environments — from the summit of Mount Everest to the depths of the Saharan Desert — than any other SLR camera. The F became an overnight success with many professional and serious amateur photographers, and spawned a succession of popular Nikon 35mm film cameras, culminating with the Nikon F6.   
 
In 1959, Nippon Kōgaku introduced the [[Nikon F]], an advanced mechanical single lens reflex ([[SLR]]) camera that proved to be extraordinarily durable and reliable. With the F, Nikon introduced its philosophy of high-quality, low-friction, close-tolerance mechanisms requiring less lubricant than other cameras.{{source}} This workmanship had a practical side, as Nikons have accompanied more photographers to extreme environments — from the summit of Mount Everest to the depths of the Saharan Desert — than any other SLR camera. The F became an overnight success with many professional and serious amateur photographers, and spawned a succession of popular Nikon 35mm film cameras, culminating with the Nikon F6.   
Line 23: Line 27:
 
In 1983 Nikon launched the Nikon F3AF, a professional SLR with [[autofocus]] together with the autofocus lenses AF 80mm f2.8 and AF 200mm f3.5 ED-IF, a fast portrait lens and a fast tele lens since the camera was designed as kind of [[press camera]]. Both lenses had internal AF motors and worked on a slightly modified F-lenses bayonet, thus enabling the usage of manual focusing lenses on the autofocus camera body.
 
In 1983 Nikon launched the Nikon F3AF, a professional SLR with [[autofocus]] together with the autofocus lenses AF 80mm f2.8 and AF 200mm f3.5 ED-IF, a fast portrait lens and a fast tele lens since the camera was designed as kind of [[press camera]]. Both lenses had internal AF motors and worked on a slightly modified F-lenses bayonet, thus enabling the usage of manual focusing lenses on the autofocus camera body.
  
In the mid 1990s Nikon made its first [[DSLR]]s, the E-series, expensive cameras producing low image resolution. In the late 1990s, Nikon introduced its consumer line digital photography products with both the Coolpix line of consumer and "prosumer" cameras as well as the Nikon D-series (DSLRs).
+
In the mid 1990s Nikon made its first [[DSLR]]s, the E-series, expensive cameras producing low image resolution. In the late 1990s, Nikon introduced its consumer line digital photography products with both the [[Coolpix]] line of consumer and "prosumer" cameras as well as the Nikon D-series (DSLRs).
 +
 
 +
In 2003 the company owned Photonics Technology Group which developed an own kind of image sensors (LBCAST-technology instead of common [[CCD]] or CMOS chip-architecture). In 2008 Nikon returned to conventional sensortypes with its FX-format [[CMOS]] sensor (FX-Format=[[35mm film]] frame-format) which it applied in its [[Nikon D3]] DSLR. In autumn 2011 Nikon introduced its mirrorless digital [[camera system]] after concurrents [[Panasonic]], [[Olympus]], [[Sony]] and [[Samsung]] had won big market shares with help of the first and second generation of their mirrorless system cameras, and Panasonic and Olympus even had launched the 3rd generation. The [[Nikon 1]] system uses an own sensor format and special [[Nikkor|1 Nikkor]] AF lenses.
  
In 2003 the company owned Photonics Technology Group which developed an own kind of image sensors (LBCAST-technology instead of common [[CCD]] or CMOS chip-architecture). In 2008 Nikon returned to conventional sensortypes with its FX-format [[CMOS]] sensor (FX-Format=[[35mm film]] frame-format) which it applied in its [[Nikon D3]] DSLR.
+
For several years Nikon produced the leading edge advanced cameras with [[35mm]] format image [[sensor]]s in the market. In 2017 the ''Nikon D850'' [[DSLR]] took more out of its [[Sony]] imaging sensor than concurrent Sony's ''Alpha A7 R Mark II'' despite of the Nikon's sensor gave more [[megapixel]]s, thus needing excessively more technological approach to get out more quality out of its smaller [[pixel]] pitch. But in the same year Sony improved its high-end camera to ''Mark III'', probably to make its 35mm format [[CSC]] cameras technologically at par with Nikon's DSLRs.<REF>[https://www.dxomark.com/Cameras/Compare/Side-by-side/Nikon-D850-versus-Pentax-K-1-versus-Sony-A7R-II___1177_1075_1035 dxOMark camera sensor comparison of Nikon D850 vs. Sony A7R Mk II vs. Pentax K-1], leading 35mm format camera bolides in 2017</REF>
  
 
== Digital ==
 
== Digital ==
 
=== SLR ===
 
=== SLR ===
 +
{|align=right
 +
||
 +
{{Flickr_image
 +
|image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/raulm/4700934263/in/pool-camerawiki/
 +
|image=  http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4062/4700934263_103d809277_m.jpg
 +
|image_align= right
 +
|image_text= Nikon D40
 +
|image_by= Raúl Sá Dantas
 +
|image_rights= with permission
 +
}}
 +
|-
 +
||
 +
{{Flickr_image
 +
|image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/fallenleafs/5590476797/in/pool-camerawiki
 +
|image= http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5102/5590476797_d79b81e3df_m.jpg
 +
|image_align= right
 +
|image_text= D700
 +
|image_by= Adam Akers
 +
|image_rights= wp
 +
}}
 +
|}
 
* [[Nikon D1]] - 1999
 
* [[Nikon D1]] - 1999
 
* [[Nikon D1|Nikon D1H]] - 2001
 
* [[Nikon D1|Nikon D1H]] - 2001
Line 39: Line 66:
 
* [[Nikon D3s]] - 2009
 
* [[Nikon D3s]] - 2009
 
* [[Nikon D3x]] - 2008
 
* [[Nikon D3x]] - 2008
 +
* Nikon D4 - 2012
 +
* Nikon D4S - 2014
 +
* Nikon D5 - 2016
 +
* Nikon D6 - 2020
 
* [[Nikon D40]] - 2006
 
* [[Nikon D40]] - 2006
 
* [[Nikon D40x]] - 2007
 
* [[Nikon D40x]] - 2007
Line 51: Line 82:
 
* [[Nikon D300]] - 2007
 
* [[Nikon D300]] - 2007
 
* [[Nikon D300s]] - 2009
 
* [[Nikon D300s]] - 2009
 +
* Nikon D500 (2016)
 +
* Nikon D600 - 2012
 +
* Nikon D610 - 2013
 
* [[Nikon D700]] - 2008
 
* [[Nikon D700]] - 2008
 +
* Nikon D750 - 2014
 +
* [[Nikon D800|Nikon D800(E)]] - 2012
 +
* Nikon D810 - 2014
 +
* Nikon D810A - 2015
 +
* Nikon D850 - 2017
 
* Nikon D3000 - 2009
 
* Nikon D3000 - 2009
 
* [[Nikon D3100]] - 2010
 
* [[Nikon D3100]] - 2010
 +
* Nikon D3200 - 2012
 +
* Nikon D3300 - 2014
 +
* Nikon D3400 - 2016
 +
* Nikon D3500 - 2018
 
* [[Nikon D5000]] - 2009
 
* [[Nikon D5000]] - 2009
* Nikon D7000 - 2010
+
* [[Nikon D5100]] - 2011
 +
* [[Nikon D5200]] - 2012
 +
* Nikon D5300 - 2013
 +
* Nikon D5500 - 2015
 +
* Nikon D5600 - 2016
 +
* [[Nikon D7000]] - 2010
 +
* [[Nikon D7100]] - 2013
 +
* Nikon D7200 - 2015
 +
* Nikon D7500 - 2017
 +
* Nikon Df - 2013
 
* [[Nikon E2/E3|Nikon E2]] - 1994
 
* [[Nikon E2/E3|Nikon E2]] - 1994
 
* [[Nikon E2/E3|Nikon E2s]] - 1994
 
* [[Nikon E2/E3|Nikon E2s]] - 1994
Line 65: Line 117:
 
''See also [[Kodak]] for the various DCS models based on Nikon bodies.''
 
''See also [[Kodak]] for the various DCS models based on Nikon bodies.''
  
''See also [[Fujifilm]] for DCS models with nikon lenses compatibilities and cameras based on nikon bodies (S2 pro and S3 Pro) ''
+
''See also [[Fujifilm digital cameras|Fujifilm]] for DCS models with Nikon lens compatibility and cameras based on Nikon DSLR bodies (S2 Pro and S3 Pro) ''
 +
 
 +
{{Flickr_image
 +
|image_source= http://www.flickr.com/maoby/14206372332/in/pool-camerawiki/
 +
|image= http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2922/14206372332_0a67e12019_m_d.jpg
 +
|image_align= right
 +
|image_text= Nikon 1 J1
 +
|image_by= maoby
 +
|image_rights= with permission
 +
}}
  
 +
=== Interchangeable-lens compact ===
 +
[[Nikon 1|Nikon 1 series]]
 +
* Nikon 1 J1 (2011)
 +
* Nikon 1 J2 (2012)
 +
* Nikon 1 J3 (2013)
 +
* Nikon 1 S1 (2013)
 +
* [[Nikon 1 V1]] (2011)
 +
* Nikon 1 V2 (2012)
  
<div class="floatright plainlinks">[http://www.flickr.com/photos/84744892@N00/482025196/in/pool-camerawiki http://farm1.static.flickr.com/217/482025196_786df6233d_t.jpg]</div>
+
====Z Series ====
 +
* Nikon Z 6
 +
* [[Nikon Z 7]]
 +
* Nikon Z 50
  
 
=== Fixed Lens ===
 
=== Fixed Lens ===
 +
 
All Nikon's compact digital cameras with fixed lenses are branded with the [[Nikon Coolpix|Coolpix]] trademark and are listed together.
 
All Nikon's compact digital cameras with fixed lenses are branded with the [[Nikon Coolpix|Coolpix]] trademark and are listed together.
 
{{br}}
 
{{br}}
 +
 +
== Still Video Cameras ==
 +
* Nikon QV prototype (modified [[Nikon F-801 (N8008)|F-801]])
 +
* [[Nikon QV-1000C]]
 +
 
== 35mm film ==
 
== 35mm film ==
 
+
=== Auto focus SLR ===
=== Auto Focus SLR ===
 
<div class="floatright plainlinks">http://static.flickr.com/60/154237059_e74b381ce7_t.jpg</div>
 
* [[Nikon F100]] - 1999
 
 
* Nikon F3AF - 1983
 
* Nikon F3AF - 1983
 
* [[Nikon F4]] - 1988
 
* [[Nikon F4]] - 1988
Line 85: Line 160:
 
* [[Nikon F5]] - 1996
 
* [[Nikon F5]] - 1996
 
* [[Nikon F6]] - 2004
 
* [[Nikon F6]] - 2004
* [[Nikon F501 (N2020)|Nikon F501 (N2020)]] - 1986
+
{{Flickr_image
* Nikon F401 (N4004) - 1987
+
|image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/lamosquita/5273059922/in/pool-camerawiki
* Nikon F401S (N4004S) - 1989
+
|image= http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5250/5273059922_5e2e383d35_m.jpg
* Nikon F401X (N5005) - 1991
+
|image_align= right
* Nikon F50 (N50) - 1994
+
|image_text= F70
* Nikon F55 (N55) - 2002
+
|image_by= Titin Soriano
* Nikon F601 (N6006) - 1990
+
|image_rights= with permission
 +
}}
 +
* [[Nikon F50 (N50)]] - 1994
 +
* [[Nikon F55 (N55)]] - 2002
 
* [[Nikon F60 (N60)|Nikon F60 (N60)]] - 1999
 
* [[Nikon F60 (N60)|Nikon F60 (N60)]] - 1999
 
* [[Nikon F65 (N65)|Nikon F65 (N65)]] - 2000  
 
* [[Nikon F65 (N65)|Nikon F65 (N65)]] - 2000  
* Nikon F70 (N70) - 1994
+
* [[Nikon F70 (N70)]] - 1994
* Nikon F75 (N75) - 2003
+
* [[Nikon F75 (N75)]] - 2003
 
* [[Nikon F80 (N80)]] - 2000
 
* [[Nikon F80 (N80)]] - 2000
* Nikon F801 (N8008) - 1988
+
* [[Nikon F90 (N90)]] - 1990
* Nikon F801S (N8008S) - 1991
 
* Nikon F90 (N90) - 1990
 
 
* [[Nikon F90X (N90S)|Nikon F90X (N90S)]] - 1992
 
* [[Nikon F90X (N90S)|Nikon F90X (N90S)]] - 1992
 +
* [[Nikon F100]] - 1999
 +
* [[Nikon F-401|Nikon F-401 (N4004)]] - 1987
 +
* [[Nikon F-401|Nikon F-401S (N4004S)]] - 1989
 +
* [[Nikon F-401|Nikon F-401X (N5005)]] - 1991
 +
* [[Nikon F-501 (N2020)]] - 1986
 +
* [[Nikon F-601 (N6006)]] - 1990
 +
* [[Nikon F-801 (N8008)]] - 1988
 +
* [[Nikon F-801 (N8008)|Nikon F-801S (N8008S)]] - 1991
  
=== Manual Focus SLR ===
+
=== Manual focus SLR ===
<div class="floatright plainlinks">http://static.flickr.com/76/154237057_cfc4cb99bd_t.jpg</div>
+
{{Flickr_image
 +
|image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/durr-architect/4795760789/in/pool-camerawiki
 +
|image= http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4136/4795760789_2f86011e80_m.jpg
 +
|image_align= right
 +
|image_text= Nikon EM
 +
|image_by= Hans Jan Dürr
 +
|image_rights= with permission
 +
}}
 
* [[Nikkorex F]] / Nikkor J - 1962
 
* [[Nikkorex F]] / Nikkor J - 1962
* Nikomat/Nikkormat EL - 1972
+
*[[Nikomat/Nikkormat]]
* Nikomat/Nikkormat ELW - 1976
+
** [[Nikomat/Nikkormat EL/ELW|Nikomat/Nikkormat EL]] - 1972
* Nikomat/Nikkormat FS - 1965
+
** [[Nikomat/Nikkormat EL/ELW|Nikomat/Nikkormat ELW]] - 1976
* Nikomat/Nikkormat FT - 1965
+
** [[Nikomat/Nikkormat FT/FS|Nikomat/Nikkormat FS]] - 1965
* [[Nikomat/Nikkormat FTN]] - 1967
+
** [[Nikomat/Nikkormat FT/FS|Nikomat/Nikkormat FT]] - 1965
* Nikomat/Nikkormat FT2 - 1975
+
** [[Nikomat/Nikkormat FTN]] - 1967
* [[Nikomat/Nikkormat FT3]] - 1977
+
** [[Nikomat/Nikkormat FT2]] - 1975
* Nikon EL2 - 1977
+
** [[Nikomat/Nikkormat FT3]] - 1977
 +
** [[Nikon EL2]] - 1977
 
* [[Nikon EM]] - 1979
 
* [[Nikon EM]] - 1979
 
* [[Nikon F]] - 1959
 
* [[Nikon F]] - 1959
Line 130: Line 222:
 
* Nikon F3/T - 1982
 
* Nikon F3/T - 1982
 
* [[Nikon FA]] - 1983
 
* [[Nikon FA]] - 1983
 +
{{Flickr_image
 +
|image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/polbar42/4960101984/in/pool-camerawiki
 +
|image= http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4103/4960101984_38624d6621_m.jpg
 +
|image_align= right
 +
|image_text= Nikon FE
 +
|image_by= polbar
 +
|image_rights= with permission
 +
}}
 
* [[Nikon FE]] - 1978
 
* [[Nikon FE]] - 1978
* Nikon FE10 - 1996
+
* [[Nikon FE10]] - 1996
 
* [[Nikon FE2]] - 1983
 
* [[Nikon FE2]] - 1983
 
* [[Nikon FG]] - 1982
 
* [[Nikon FG]] - 1982
* Nikon FG20 - 1984
+
* [[Nikon FG20]] - 1984
 
* [[Nikon FM]] - 1977
 
* [[Nikon FM]] - 1977
 
* [[Nikon FM10]] - 1995
 
* [[Nikon FM10]] - 1995
 
* [[Nikon FM2]] - 1982
 
* [[Nikon FM2]] - 1982
 
* [[Nikon FM2n]] - 1983
 
* [[Nikon FM2n]] - 1983
<div class="floatright plainlinks">[http://www.flickr.com/photos/a0i/324700616/in/pool-camerapedia http://farm1.static.flickr.com/134/324700616_32d7239600_t.jpg]</div>
+
* [[Nikon FM2/T]] - 1994
* Nikon FM2/T - 1994
 
 
* [[Nikon FM3A]] - 2001
 
* [[Nikon FM3A]] - 2001
* [[Nikon N2000 (F301)]] - 1985
+
* [[Nikon F-301 (N2000)]] - 1985
* Nikon N6000 (F601m) - 1990
+
* [[Nikon F-601M|Nikon F-601M (N6000)]] - 1990
  
 
=== Leaf shutter SLR ===
 
=== Leaf shutter SLR ===
Line 163: Line 262:
 
* [[Nikon rangefinder models|Nikon SP 2005]] (2005)
 
* [[Nikon rangefinder models|Nikon SP 2005]] (2005)
  
=== Fixed Lens / Compact===
+
=== Fixed lens / Compact===
<div class="floatright plainlinks">[http://www.flickr.com/photos/50678983@N00/301236356/in/pool-camerapedia/ http://farm1.static.flickr.com/105/301236356_55ad3cc599_t.jpg]</div>
+
<div class="floatright plainlinks">{{Flickr_image
 +
|image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/50678983@N00/301236356/in/pool-camerawiki/
 +
|image= http://farm1.static.flickr.com/105/301236356_55ad3cc599_t.jpg
 +
|image_align= right
 +
|image_text= 28Ti
 +
|image_by= Dries van den Elzen
 +
|image_rights= wp
 +
}}</div>
 
As with other Japanese manufacturers, Nikon's models were given different names in different territories and formed a confusing array of series, some of which lasted several years and crossed over with others. Below is a list of all the ranges along with some models that defy categorization.
 
As with other Japanese manufacturers, Nikon's models were given different names in different territories and formed a confusing array of series, some of which lasted several years and crossed over with others. Below is a list of all the ranges along with some models that defy categorization.
* [[Nikon 28Ti]] (Quartz Date, silver titanium body, 28mm/2.8 Nikkor lens, 1994)
+
* [[Nikon 28Ti]] (Quartz Date, silver titanium body, 28mm/2.8 [[Nikkor]] lens, 1994)
* [[Nikon 35Ti]] (Quartz Date, black titanium body, 35mm/2.8 Nikkor lens, 1993)  
+
* [[Nikon 35Ti]] (Quartz Date, black titanium body, 35mm/2.8 [[Nikkor]] lens, 1993)  
 
* [[Nikon AF/Fun•Touch series]] (Wide angle autofocus lenses, from RF of 1987 to AF250SV of 2002)
 
* [[Nikon AF/Fun•Touch series]] (Wide angle autofocus lenses, from RF of 1987 to AF250SV of 2002)
 
* [[Nikon AW35/Sport•Touch (QD)]] (Splash-proof, 35mm/3.5, 1992)
 
* [[Nikon AW35/Sport•Touch (QD)]] (Splash-proof, 35mm/3.5, 1992)
Line 179: Line 285:
  
 
=== Underwater ===
 
=== Underwater ===
* Nikonos
+
* [[Nikonos]] (Calypso/Nikkor)
* [[Calypso / Nikkor II]]
+
* [[Nikonos II]] (Calypso / Nikkor II)
* [[Nikonos II]]
+
* [[Nikonos III]]
* Nikonos III
+
* [[Nikonos IV-A]]
* Nikonos IV-A
 
 
* [[Nikonos V]]
 
* [[Nikonos V]]
* Nikonos RS
+
* [[Nikonos RS]]
  
 
== APS film ==
 
== APS film ==
Line 193: Line 298:
  
 
=== Compact ===
 
=== Compact ===
* Nuvis A20
+
* [[Nikon Nuvis A20|Nuvis A20]]
* Nuvis E10
+
<div class="floatright plainlinks">{{Flickr_image
* Nuvis mini
+
|image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/awcam/3052701077/in/pool-camerawiki/
<div class="floatright plainlinks">[http://www.flickr.com/photos/awcam/3052701077/in/pool-camerawiki http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3027/3052701077_f63ba158ca_t.jpg]</div>
+
|image= http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3027/3052701077_f63ba158ca_t.jpg
 +
|image_align= right
 +
|image_text= [[Nikon Nuvis S|Nuvis S]]
 +
|image_by= AWCam
 +
|image_rights= wp
 +
}}</div>
 +
* Nuvie E10
 +
* Nuvis mini i
 
* [[Nikon Nuvis S|Nuvis S]]
 
* [[Nikon Nuvis S|Nuvis S]]
 
* [[Nikon Nuvis S 2000|Nuvis S 2000]]
 
* [[Nikon Nuvis S 2000|Nuvis S 2000]]
Line 202: Line 314:
 
* Nuvis 60
 
* Nuvis 60
 
* [[Nikon Nuvis 75|Nuvis 75]]
 
* [[Nikon Nuvis 75|Nuvis 75]]
* Nuvis 200
+
* Nuvis 110i
* Nuvis 300
+
* Nuvis 125i
 +
* [[Nikon Nuvis 160i|Nuvis 160i]]
 +
* [[Nikon Nuvis 200|Nuvis 200]]
 +
* [[Nuvis 300]]
  
 
== Other cameras ==
 
== Other cameras ==
Line 210: Line 325:
  
 
== Lenses ==
 
== Lenses ==
* [[Nippon Kōgaku lenses before 1945]]
+
see [[Nippon Kōgaku lenses before 1945]], [[Nikkor]] and [[Nikon F lenses]].
* [http://www.photosynthesis.co.nz/nikon/lenses.html Nikon Lenses] Specifications, Accessories and Serial Numbers of "every" Nikkor SLR lens
+
 
 +
== Flash ==
 +
{|width=60%
 +
|-
 +
|valign=top|
 +
* Nikon Flash Unit BC-B
 +
* Nikon Flash Unit BC-1
 +
* Nikon Flash Unit BC-2
 +
* Nikon Flash Unit BC-3
 +
* Nikon Flash Unit BC-5
 +
* Nikon Flash Unit BC-7
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-E
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-1
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-2
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-4
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-5
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-7E
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-8E
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-9
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-10
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-11
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-12
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-14
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-15
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-16
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-17
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-18
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-19
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-20
 +
|valign=top|
 +
* Nikon Macro Speedlight SB-21
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-22
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-22s
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-23
 +
* [[Nikon Speedlight SB-24]]
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-25
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-26
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-27
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-28
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-28DX
 +
* Nikon Macro Speedlight SB-29
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-30
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-50DX
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-80DX
 +
* Nikon Nikonos Speedlight SB-101
 +
* Nikon Nikonos Speedlight SB-102
 +
* Nikon Nikonos Speedlight SB-103
 +
* Nikon Nikonos Speedlight SB-104
 +
* Nikon Nikonos Speedlight SB-105
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-140
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-400
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-600
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-700
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-800
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-900
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-910
 +
* Nikon Speedlight SB-R200
 +
|}
  
 +
==Bellows==
 +
See [[Nikon Bellows]].
 
== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==
 
<references />
 
<references />
Line 219: Line 393:
 
* {{Inquiry1943}}
 
* {{Inquiry1943}}
 
* {{Rotoloni Hove}}
 
* {{Rotoloni Hove}}
* Hillebrand, Rudolf and Hauschild, Hans-Joachim. ''Nikon Compendium. Handbook of the Nikon System.'' Hove (UK): [http://www.sphotobooks.com/ Hove Books], 1993. 198 pages. ISBN 1897802021.
+
* Hillebrand, Rudolf and Hauschild, Hans-Joachim. ''Nikon Compendium. Handbook of the Nikon System.'' Hove (UK): [http://www.sphotobooks.com/ Hove Books], 1993. 198 pages. <nowiki>ISBN</nowiki> 1897802021.
* Stafford, Simon, Hillebrand, Rudolf and Hauschild, Hans-Joachim. ''Nikon Compendium: Nikon Systems from 1917.'' Hove (UK): [http://www.sphotobooks.com/ Hove Books], 2004. 388 pages. ISBN 1897802161.
+
* Stafford, Simon, Hillebrand, Rudolf and Hauschild, Hans-Joachim. ''Nikon Compendium: Nikon Systems from 1917.'' Hove (UK): [http://www.sphotobooks.com/ Hove Books], 2004. 388 pages. <nowiki>ISBN</nowiki> 1897802161.
* Stafford, Simon, Hillebrand, Rudolf and Hauschild, Hans-Joachim. ''The New Nikon Compendium: Cameras, Lenses & Accessories since 1917.'' [http://www.larkbooks.com/ Lark Books], 2004. 416 pages. ISBN 1579905927.
+
* Stafford, Simon, Hillebrand, Rudolf and Hauschild, Hans-Joachim. ''The New Nikon Compendium: Cameras, Lenses & Accessories since 1917.'' [http://www.larkbooks.com/ Lark Books], 2004. 416 pages. <nowiki>ISBN</nowiki> 1579905927.
* Comon, Paul and Evans, Art. ''Nikon Data. 500 + cameras, lenses, and accesories. A detailed buying manual a complete pricing guide.'' Photo Data Research, 1990. 150 pages. ISBN 0962650803.
+
* Comon, Paul and Evans, Art. ''Nikon Data. 500 + cameras, lenses, and accesories. A detailed buying manual a complete pricing guide.'' Photo Data Research, 1990. 150 pages. <nowiki>ISBN</nowiki> 0962650803.
* Trademark publications for the names "Nikkor" and "Aero-Nikkor". The trademarks were applied for (出現) on 24 July 1931 and granted (公告) on 7 April 1932 (no.S07-1808 and S07-1809). Available in the [http://www.ipdl.inpit.go.jp/homepg.ipdl IPDL] trademark database.
+
* Trademark publication for the names "Nikon", "Nikoflex", "Sphex" and "Parax". The trademarks were applied for (出現) on 5 August 1946 and granted (公告) on 24 February 1947 (no.S22-153 to S22-156). Available in the [https://www.j-platpat.inpit.go.jp/web/all/top/BTmTopPage IPDL] trademark database.
* Trademark publication for the names "Nikon", "Nikoflex", "Sphex" and "Parax". The trademarks were applied for (出現) on 5 August 1946 and granted (公告) on 24 February 1947 (no.S22-153 to S22-156). Available in the [http://www.ipdl.inpit.go.jp/homepg.ipdl IPDL] trademark database.
 
  
 
== Links ==
 
== Links ==
 
In English:
 
In English:
 
* [http://www.nikon.com/ Official Nikon Site]
 
* [http://www.nikon.com/ Official Nikon Site]
* [http://imaging.nikon.com/products/imaging/technology/d-archives/index.htm Chronological list and specifications of compact cameras] on Official Nikon Imaging website.
+
* Nikon's [http://imaging.nikon.com/history/ History] pages:
 +
** [http://imaging.nikon.com/history/chronicle/ Camera Chronicle] (articles by Yokoyuki Tateno and Kenji Toyoda)
 +
** [http://imaging.nikon.com/lineup/filmcamera/index.htm Film SLR cameras]
 +
* [http://imaging.nikon.com/history/story/ Nikkor - The thousand and one nights], at [http://nikkor.com/ Nikkor.com]
 
* [http://antiquecameras.net/nikonrflens.html Nikon Rangefinder Lens Price & Information Guide]
 
* [http://antiquecameras.net/nikonrflens.html Nikon Rangefinder Lens Price & Information Guide]
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikon_Corporation Nikon at Wikipedia], a comprehensive overview of company, history and products.
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikon_Corporation Nikon at Wikipedia], a comprehensive overview of company, history and products.
 
* [http://www.nikonians.org/ Nikonians], a large Nikon fan site.
 
* [http://www.nikonians.org/ Nikonians], a large Nikon fan site.
* [http://nikonblog.wordpress.com Nikon Camera Blog], a Nikon Camera and Lens Blog
+
* [http://www.nikonblog.net/ Nikon Camera Blog], a Nikon Camera and Lens Blog
 
* [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/index.htm Pictorial History of Nikon cameras] at [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/ Photography in Malaysia], including the [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/htmls/compact.htm compacts], the [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/htmls/rangefinder.htm rangefinders], the [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/htmls/nikonos.htm Nikonos], the [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/htmls/slrmain8090.htm 35mm SLRs] and the [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/digitalSLRs/index.htm digital SLRs]
 
* [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/index.htm Pictorial History of Nikon cameras] at [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/ Photography in Malaysia], including the [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/htmls/compact.htm compacts], the [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/htmls/rangefinder.htm rangefinders], the [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/htmls/nikonos.htm Nikonos], the [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/htmls/slrmain8090.htm 35mm SLRs] and the [http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/companies/nikon/htmls/models/digitalSLRs/index.htm digital SLRs]
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/14296213@N00/sets/72157594230256110/ Pictures of Nikon prototypes] at [http://www.flickr.com/photos/14296213@N00/ nikon.catalogus' Flickr stream]
+
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/14296213@N00/sets/72157594230256110/ Pictures of Nikon prototypes] at [http://www.flickr.com/photos/14296213@N00/ Hans Braakhuis' Flickr stream]
* [http://www.nikonhs.org/history.html Short history of Nikon until 1949] at the [http://www.nikonhs.org/index.html Nikon Historical Society website]
+
* [http://www.nikonhistoricalsociety.com/ Nikon Historical Society website "Nikon Journal"]
* [http://grad.usask.ca/gateway/archive17.html Article] titled "Nikon and the sponsorship of Japan's optical industry by the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1917-1945", by Jeff Alexander, published in [http://grad.usask.ca/gateway/index.html Gateway]
+
* [http://homepage.usask.ca/~jgz816/archive17.html Article] titled "Nikon and the sponsorship of Japan's optical industry by the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1917-1945", by Jeff Alexander, published in [http://grad.usask.ca/gateway/index.html Gateway]
* [http://www.mflenses.com/gallery/main.php?g2_itemId=1300 Nikkor Manual Focus Lens Gallery] at [http://www.mflenses.com www.mflenses.com]
 
 
* [http://www.butkus.org/chinon/nikon.htm Nikon instruction manuals - English] on [http://www.butkus.org/chinon/ Mike Butkus' www.orphancameras.com site]
 
* [http://www.butkus.org/chinon/nikon.htm Nikon instruction manuals - English] on [http://www.butkus.org/chinon/ Mike Butkus' www.orphancameras.com site]
 +
* [http://www.nipponkogakuklub.com/NKK/Nikon_History.html Nikon history] on [http://www.nipponkogakuklub.com/ NipponKogakuKlub]
 
In French:
 
In French:
* [http://photo.even.free.fr/col_app_nikon.php Nikon page] at [http://photo.even.free.fr/ Collection G. Even's site]
+
* [http://www.collectiongeven.com/piwigo/index.php?/category/808 Nikon page] at [http://www.collectiongeven.com/piwigo/ Collection G. Even's site]
* [http://www.collection-appareils.fr/general/html/listeN_imagettes.php#Nikon Cameras and User manuals] at www.collection-appareils.fr
 
 
In Spanish:
 
In Spanish:
 
* [http://manualcamera.info/clasicas.htm Manual Camera] Utilizando las Nikon de enfoque manual y otras cámaras clásicas  
 
* [http://manualcamera.info/clasicas.htm Manual Camera] Utilizando las Nikon de enfoque manual y otras cámaras clásicas  
Line 251: Line 426:
 
[[Category: Japanese lens makers]]
 
[[Category: Japanese lens makers]]
 
[[Category: sensor makers]]
 
[[Category: sensor makers]]
[[Category: Nikon|N]]
+
[[Category: Nikon|*]]

Latest revision as of 18:08, 1 November 2019

Nikon is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Its full name is Nikon Corporation (㈱ニコン, Kabushiki Kaisha Nikon) since 1988.

History

The company was founded in 1917 as Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō K.K. (日本光学工業㈱, often rendered in English as Nippon Kogaku or, following as different convention, Nippon Kougaku) with the merger of two Japanese optical firms with military connections. The company's first camera lenses were designed in the 1920s by Heinrich Acht, who was invited with a team of German engineers (see Nippon Kōgaku lenses before 1945). After the departure of Acht, the lens design department was taken over by Sunayama Kakuya (砂山角野). The first lens mounted on a camera for civil use was the Anytar 12cm f/4.5 made in the early 1930s, renamed Nikkor in 1932. From 1934, the company supplied lenses to Seiki Kōgaku for the early Canon cameras.

During World War II the company expanded significantly, supplying optical equipment to the Japanese military, including various aerial cameras.[1]

After the war, Nippon Kōgaku decided to produce cameras for civil use, and two projects were started: a 6×6cm TLR and a 35mm rangefinder camera. The TLR, called Nikoflex, was shelved because of problems to find an adequate leaf shutter. The rangefinder camera was inspired by the German Contax and Leica. It is said that various names were considered, including Pentax, Nicca or Nikorette.[2] It was finally released as the Nikon in 1948.

The Nikon I proved very successful, and was followed by a long line of rangefinder cameras. In parallel, the company produced a range of Nikkor lenses both in Leica mount and for its own rangefinder cameras. The quality of these lenses attracted the attention of many professional photographers and photojournalists desiring better results from the small 35mm format.

In 1959, Nippon Kōgaku introduced the Nikon F, an advanced mechanical single lens reflex (SLR) camera that proved to be extraordinarily durable and reliable. With the F, Nikon introduced its philosophy of high-quality, low-friction, close-tolerance mechanisms requiring less lubricant than other cameras.source needed This workmanship had a practical side, as Nikons have accompanied more photographers to extreme environments — from the summit of Mount Everest to the depths of the Saharan Desert — than any other SLR camera. The F became an overnight success with many professional and serious amateur photographers, and spawned a succession of popular Nikon 35mm film cameras, culminating with the Nikon F6.

In 1983 Nikon launched the Nikon F3AF, a professional SLR with autofocus together with the autofocus lenses AF 80mm f2.8 and AF 200mm f3.5 ED-IF, a fast portrait lens and a fast tele lens since the camera was designed as kind of press camera. Both lenses had internal AF motors and worked on a slightly modified F-lenses bayonet, thus enabling the usage of manual focusing lenses on the autofocus camera body.

In the mid 1990s Nikon made its first DSLRs, the E-series, expensive cameras producing low image resolution. In the late 1990s, Nikon introduced its consumer line digital photography products with both the Coolpix line of consumer and "prosumer" cameras as well as the Nikon D-series (DSLRs).

In 2003 the company owned Photonics Technology Group which developed an own kind of image sensors (LBCAST-technology instead of common CCD or CMOS chip-architecture). In 2008 Nikon returned to conventional sensortypes with its FX-format CMOS sensor (FX-Format=35mm film frame-format) which it applied in its Nikon D3 DSLR. In autumn 2011 Nikon introduced its mirrorless digital camera system after concurrents Panasonic, Olympus, Sony and Samsung had won big market shares with help of the first and second generation of their mirrorless system cameras, and Panasonic and Olympus even had launched the 3rd generation. The Nikon 1 system uses an own sensor format and special 1 Nikkor AF lenses.

For several years Nikon produced the leading edge advanced cameras with 35mm format image sensors in the market. In 2017 the Nikon D850 DSLR took more out of its Sony imaging sensor than concurrent Sony's Alpha A7 R Mark II despite of the Nikon's sensor gave more megapixels, thus needing excessively more technological approach to get out more quality out of its smaller pixel pitch. But in the same year Sony improved its high-end camera to Mark III, probably to make its 35mm format CSC cameras technologically at par with Nikon's DSLRs.[3]

Digital

SLR

See also Kodak for the various DCS models based on Nikon bodies.

See also Fujifilm for DCS models with Nikon lens compatibility and cameras based on Nikon DSLR bodies (S2 Pro and S3 Pro)

Interchangeable-lens compact

Nikon 1 series

  • Nikon 1 J1 (2011)
  • Nikon 1 J2 (2012)
  • Nikon 1 J3 (2013)
  • Nikon 1 S1 (2013)
  • Nikon 1 V1 (2011)
  • Nikon 1 V2 (2012)

Z Series

Fixed Lens

All Nikon's compact digital cameras with fixed lenses are branded with the Coolpix trademark and are listed together.

Still Video Cameras

35mm film

Auto focus SLR

Manual focus SLR

Leaf shutter SLR

Rangefinder

Fixed lens / Compact

As with other Japanese manufacturers, Nikon's models were given different names in different territories and formed a confusing array of series, some of which lasted several years and crossed over with others. Below is a list of all the ranges along with some models that defy categorization.

Underwater

APS film

SLR

Compact

Other cameras

  • Nikoflex (TLR project or prototype, c.1946)
  • Nikon 16 (subminiature prototype, c.1959)

Lenses

see Nippon Kōgaku lenses before 1945, Nikkor and Nikon F lenses.

Flash

  • Nikon Flash Unit BC-B
  • Nikon Flash Unit BC-1
  • Nikon Flash Unit BC-2
  • Nikon Flash Unit BC-3
  • Nikon Flash Unit BC-5
  • Nikon Flash Unit BC-7
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-E
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-1
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-2
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-4
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-5
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-7E
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-8E
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-9
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-10
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-11
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-12
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-14
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-15
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-16
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-17
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-18
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-19
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-20
  • Nikon Macro Speedlight SB-21
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-22
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-22s
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-23
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-24
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-25
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-26
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-27
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-28
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-28DX
  • Nikon Macro Speedlight SB-29
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-30
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-50DX
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-80DX
  • Nikon Nikonos Speedlight SB-101
  • Nikon Nikonos Speedlight SB-102
  • Nikon Nikonos Speedlight SB-103
  • Nikon Nikonos Speedlight SB-104
  • Nikon Nikonos Speedlight SB-105
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-140
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-400
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-600
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-700
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-800
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-900
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-910
  • Nikon Speedlight SB-R200

Bellows

See Nikon Bellows.

Notes

  1. Its address in 1943 was Tōkyō-to Ōmori-ku Iriarai-chō 5–345 (東京都大森区入新井町5–345). Source: "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" ("Inquiry into Japanese cameras"). (The source erroneously says 八新井町 for 入新井町.)
  2. Rotoloni, Nikon Rangefinder Camera, p.7; "Nikon Rangefinder Cameras" in the Nikon official website.
  3. dxOMark camera sensor comparison of Nikon D850 vs. Sony A7R Mk II vs. Pentax K-1, leading 35mm format camera bolides in 2017

Bibliography

  • "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" (国産写真機ノ現状調査, Inquiry into Japanese cameras), listing Japanese camera production as of April 1943. Reproduced in Supuringu kamera de ikou: Zen 69 kishu no shōkai to tsukaikata (スプリングカメラでいこう: 全69機種の紹介と使い方, Let's try spring cameras: Presentation and use of 69 machines). Tokyo: Shashinkogyo Syuppan-sha, 2004. ISBN 4-87956-072-3. Pp.180–7.
  • Rotoloni, Robert. Nikon Rangefinder Camera. Hove, East Sussex: Hove Foto Books, 1983 (second edition). ISBN 1-874707-07-3.
  • Hillebrand, Rudolf and Hauschild, Hans-Joachim. Nikon Compendium. Handbook of the Nikon System. Hove (UK): Hove Books, 1993. 198 pages. ISBN 1897802021.
  • Stafford, Simon, Hillebrand, Rudolf and Hauschild, Hans-Joachim. Nikon Compendium: Nikon Systems from 1917. Hove (UK): Hove Books, 2004. 388 pages. ISBN 1897802161.
  • Stafford, Simon, Hillebrand, Rudolf and Hauschild, Hans-Joachim. The New Nikon Compendium: Cameras, Lenses & Accessories since 1917. Lark Books, 2004. 416 pages. ISBN 1579905927.
  • Comon, Paul and Evans, Art. Nikon Data. 500 + cameras, lenses, and accesories. A detailed buying manual a complete pricing guide. Photo Data Research, 1990. 150 pages. ISBN 0962650803.
  • Trademark publication for the names "Nikon", "Nikoflex", "Sphex" and "Parax". The trademarks were applied for (出現) on 5 August 1946 and granted (公告) on 24 February 1947 (no.S22-153 to S22-156). Available in the IPDL trademark database.

Links

In English:

In French:

In Spanish:

  • Manual Camera Utilizando las Nikon de enfoque manual y otras cámaras clásicas

In Images: