Minolta XD series
In 1977, Minolta was the first to combine both TTL aperture-priority and shutter-priority automation in one SLR camera body, this was the Minolta XD-7 / XD-11. The mode switch next to the shutter-speed dial has three positions: "M" (manual), "Auto - A" and "Auto - S". The "A" indicates Aperture-priority mode and the "S" Shutter-priority mode. There is also a hidden Program-mode, securing correct exposure whenever the available aperture-range is insufficient, in which case the shutter speed is adjusted. In fact, this function is always active, checking the exposure immediately before the shutter is fired, by MEASURING the TTL light intensity AFTER the lens aperture is set automatically. Based on this reading, it ADJUSTS the shutter speed as required. To obtain full advantage of the Shutter-priority mode, the lens must be set to its minimum aperture. On the new MD-range of lenses, this setting can be locked by a small switch. Failing to do this, limits the range of apertures available to the automatic mode. There is a "Green line" assisting the correct use of the shutter priority mode, comprising green symbols on the aperture ring and lock, the "S" mode switch position, and the 1/125 sec. on the shutter speed dial. However the green 1/125 sec. is just a suggestion, not mandatory.
The versatility of having both automatic exposure modes is supported by the viewfinder, in which both shutter and aperture settings are prominently displayed. The presentation of this data depends on the exposure mode: when in aperture-priority, the aperture value appears at the bottom of the viewfinder and the shutter speed appears on the right, where a marker points to the derived value appropriate for correct exposure. When in shutter-priority mode, the film speed appears in a box in the lower-right corner of the viewfinder, and the aperture appears on the right -- again marked according to the correct exposure. The viewfinder image itself, meanwhile, is a beautifully crisp and large image thanks to the Minolta Acute-Matte focusing screen, the 94% view coverage, and 0.87 magnification.
The camera also features a robust meter that covers EV 1 through EV 18, with off-the-film metering for precise measurement of the amount of light striking the film during exposure. This type of metering was one of the more sophisticated varieties available at the time of the camera's release, and remains extremely precise despite three decades of advances in film.
The shutter is of the vertical-travel Copal variety and is particularly quiet. The shutter has a 1/100s mechanical mode that operates independently of battery power (O).
The Leica R4 is based on this camera body. Minolta introduced the Rokkor MD lenses for the XD range of cameras, some of these were also made available and sold by Leica, like the 35-70mm/3.5 zoom.
Several versions was produced:
- the original XD model, which was named XD-11 in USA and Canada and XD-7 in Europe and elsewhere
- the export model XD-5 which lacked the pre-set aperture and pre-set shutter time info in the viewfinder and the eyepiece shutter
- the Japan only XD-s which was a XD, where the eyepiece shutter was swapped against a diopter adjustment
- a Medical model of XD and XD-s was available as a specialized body for scientific and medial applications. This camera was laid out for flash use with a microscope or alike. It lacked the shutter speeds, the automatic modes and the ASA setting. The shutter time was fixed to flash sync at 1/100s.
Pre-set aperture and shutter speed visible
below the viewfinder image. At the right side
the meter's LEDs showing chosen aperture
(in shutter priority mode S , in A mode the
- Modern Classics Review
- XD-7 page and French User manual at www.collection-appareils.fr
- XD11/XD/XD7 User Manual in English (Rapidshare download) - Courtesy: acolla
- Michael Werneburg's review
- Wikipedia entry
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