Difference between revisions of "Leningrad"

From Camera-wiki.org
Jump to: navigation, search
(Bibliography: + template)
m (Links)
 
(2 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 7: Line 7:
 
|image_rights= with permission
 
|image_rights= with permission
 
}}
 
}}
The '''Leningrad''' (Ленинград) is a [[35mm]] [[rangefinder camera]] manufactured by [[GOMZ]], (ГОМЗ, Государственный оптико-механический завод, Ленинград = Gosularstvennyi Optiko-Mekhanicheskii Zavod =State Optical-Mechanical Factory), Leningrad, USSR. It conceived by I. Shapiro and produced between 1956-68. It has a spring motor advance, and takes [[39mm screw lenses]].
+
The '''Leningrad''' (Ленинград) is a [[35mm]] [[rangefinder camera]] manufactured by [[GOMZ]], (ГОМЗ, Государственный оптико-механический завод, Ленинград = Gosularstvennyi Optiko-Mekhanicheskii Zavod =State Optical-Mechanical Factory), Leningrad, USSR. It was conceived by I. Shapiro and produced between 1956-68. It has a spring motor advance, and takes [[39mm screw lenses]].
  
 
The clockwork winding mechanism, a spring-powered mechanical motor, does not allow continuous shooting; for every frame you must release the shutter. It takes about 20 pictures after one full actuation of the spring, it is possible 3 frames per second (if you can do it). There is absolutely no way to advance film and to cock the shutter other than via the spring motor. There are engravings on the right side of the top plate as 0-5-10-15-20, with a pointer beneath the motor drive knob shows the count of frames that will be taken when the spring drive is cocking.<ref>If Leningrad suddenly decides not to advance the film after you've taken try turning the shutter speed dial slightly counterclockwise against spring tension, then letting it snap back. Often this will release the mechanism and let the film advance to the next frame. And since (as noted above) there's no alternate manual way to advance the film, you'd better hope this trick works!</ref>
 
The clockwork winding mechanism, a spring-powered mechanical motor, does not allow continuous shooting; for every frame you must release the shutter. It takes about 20 pictures after one full actuation of the spring, it is possible 3 frames per second (if you can do it). There is absolutely no way to advance film and to cock the shutter other than via the spring motor. There are engravings on the right side of the top plate as 0-5-10-15-20, with a pointer beneath the motor drive knob shows the count of frames that will be taken when the spring drive is cocking.<ref>If Leningrad suddenly decides not to advance the film after you've taken try turning the shutter speed dial slightly counterclockwise against spring tension, then letting it snap back. Often this will release the mechanism and let the film advance to the next frame. And since (as noted above) there's no alternate manual way to advance the film, you'd better hope this trick works!</ref>
  
The film take-up system is unique as it ignores sprocket holes on 35mm film. Instead it winds the film onto a fat take-up spool (drum). No account is taken of the increasing diameter of this spool as film is wound onto it, resulting in increasingly wide gaps between the frames on a roll. Modern automated negative cutting will not adjust for the unique frame layout, and negatives and slides must be ordered from labs uncut. (Individual mounting of the slides must therefore be done by the user.) Users of the Leningrad consider this not a bug but a feature.
+
The film take-up system is unique as it ignores the sprocket holes on 35mm film. Instead it winds the film onto a fat take-up spool (drum). No account is taken of the increasing diameter of this spool as film is wound onto it, resulting in increasingly wide gaps between the frames on a roll. Modern automated negative cutting will not adjust for the unique frame layout, and negatives and slides must be ordered from labs uncut. (Individual mounting of the slides must therefore be done by the user.) Users of the Leningrad consider this not a bug but a feature.
  
 
Leningrads were supplied with a standard Jupiter-8 lens and will accept most [[39mm screw lenses]]. An over-hanging lip just above the lens mount makes it impossible to mount certain lenses.
 
Leningrads were supplied with a standard Jupiter-8 lens and will accept most [[39mm screw lenses]]. An over-hanging lip just above the lens mount makes it impossible to mount certain lenses.
Line 18: Line 18:
  
 
Just 76,000 units were made, a small number by Soviet standards. It is not known how many survive.
 
Just 76,000 units were made, a small number by Soviet standards. It is not known how many survive.
There are 7 types and 4 sub-types of the Mir.<ref>Types are according to Alaxander Komarov in [http://www.fotoua.com/1cameraAlltip.php?st=7&rd=4&usl=4&usl1=leningrad&seek1=&seek2= Fotoua]. You can also find serial numbers for dating of the cameras in this site. There is another former USSR cameras classification and info by Aidas Pikiotas in [http://www.sovietcams.com/index.php?423117004 SovietCams]</ref> <ref>There are usefull books  about cameras of former USSR and have classifications also.</ref> <ref> Pages from the the book of former USSR cameras by [http://img.inkfrog.com/click_enlarge1.php?image=IMG_3609.JPG&username=calicurg&aid=972050785 Suglob, Shaternik, Kochergin]</ref> <ref>Discussion about clasifications in the books of Princelle and Suglob, Shaternik, Kochergin in [http://www.ussrphoto.com/Forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=1500 USSR Photo Forum]</ref>
+
There are 7 types and 4 sub-types of the Mir.<ref>Types are according to Alaxander Komarov in [http://www.fotoua.com/1cameraAlltip.php?st=7&rd=4&usl=4&usl1=leningrad&seek1=&seek2= Fotoua]. You can also find serial numbers for dating of the cameras in this site. There is another classification of former-USSR cameras by Aidas Pikiotas at [http://www.sovietcams.com/index.php?423117004 SovietCams]</ref><ref> Pages from the the book of former USSR cameras by [http://img.inkfrog.com/click_enlarge1.php?image=IMG_3609.JPG&username=calicurg&aid=972050785 Suglob, Shaternik, Kochergin]</ref> <ref>Discussion of camera classifications in the books of Princelle and Suglob, Shaternik, Kochergin in [http://www.ussrphoto.com/Forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=1500 USSR Photo Forum]</ref>
  
 
==Some features==
 
==Some features==
Line 24: Line 24:
 
* Lens: [[Jupiter]]-8 (ИНДУСТАР), 50mm f/2, coated, Mount: M39 screw, filter thread 35mm, made by [[KMZ]]
 
* Lens: [[Jupiter]]-8 (ИНДУСТАР), 50mm f/2, coated, Mount: M39 screw, filter thread 35mm, made by [[KMZ]]
 
* Focusing: matching rangefinder split images in the viewfinder
 
* Focusing: matching rangefinder split images in the viewfinder
* Shutter: [[Focal plane shutter]], rubberized silk double cloth curtain, horizontaly travelling, speeds 1- 1/1000 +B, plus [[flash sync|bulb sync]]. 1/25s
+
* Shutter: [[Focal plane shutter]], rubberized silk double cloth curtain, travelling horizontally, speeds 1- 1/1000 +B, plus [[flash sync|bulb sync]]. 1/25s
* Viewfinder: coupled Galilean viewfinder/rangefinder, (.68x), bright frame lines for 50, 85 and 135mm lenses, w/ a split image rangefinder with 57mm base. The whole finder covering the 35mm focal length. There is a diopter adjustment ring on the eye-piece
+
* Viewfinder: coupled Galilean viewfinder/rangefinder, (.68x), bright frame lines for 50, 85 and 135mm lenses, w/ a split image rangefinder with 57mm base. The whole finder covering the 35mm focal length. There is a diopter adjustment ring on the eyepiece.
* [[Self-timer]] <ref>An inoperable self-timer is a common problem on the Leningrad because if the timer is set without the camera being wound, it breaks </ref>
+
* [[Self-timer]] <ref>An inoperable self-timer is a common problem on the Leningrad because if the timer is set without the camera being wound, it breaks. </ref>
 
* Adjustable flash synch delay 5 - 20 milliseconds
 
* Adjustable flash synch delay 5 - 20 milliseconds
 
* Back cover: removable with the bottom plate
 
* Back cover: removable with the bottom plate
Line 42: Line 42:
  
 
{|class=plainlinks align="center"
 
{|class=plainlinks align="center"
||
+
|
 
  {{Flickr_image
 
  {{Flickr_image
 
  |image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/s-demir/5820086603/in/pool-camerawiki/
 
  |image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/s-demir/5820086603/in/pool-camerawiki/
Line 51: Line 51:
 
  |image_rights=  
 
  |image_rights=  
 
  }}
 
  }}
  ||
+
  |
 
  {{Flickr_image
 
  {{Flickr_image
 
  |image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/s-demir/5820088021/in/pool-camerawiki/
 
  |image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/s-demir/5820088021/in/pool-camerawiki/
Line 60: Line 60:
 
  |image_rights=  
 
  |image_rights=  
 
  }}
 
  }}
  ||
+
  |
 
  {{Flickr_image
 
  {{Flickr_image
 
  |image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/s-demir/5820087265/in/pool-camerawiki/
 
  |image_source= http://www.flickr.com/photos/s-demir/5820087265/in/pool-camerawiki/
Line 79: Line 79:
 
* {{Princelle USSR}}
 
* {{Princelle USSR}}
 
In Russian
 
In Russian
* 1200 Cameras from USSR by Suglob, Shaternik, Kochergin, 2009 , [http://www.ussrphoto.com/Wiki/default.asp?WikiCatID=39&ParentID=4&ContentID=311&Item=1200+Cameras+from+USSR+by+Suglob%2C+Shaternik%2C+Kochergin more info about book]
+
* 1200 Cameras from USSR by Suglob, Shaternik, Kochergin, 2009 , [http://www.novacon.com.br/books6.htm more info about book]
  
 
==Links==
 
==Links==
Line 85: Line 85:
 
* [http://www.photoethnography.com/ClassicCameras/Leningrad.html in Photoethnography Karen Nakamura]  
 
* [http://www.photoethnography.com/ClassicCameras/Leningrad.html in Photoethnography Karen Nakamura]  
 
* [http://www.fotoua.com/1cameraAlltip.php?st=7&rd=4&usl=4&usl1=leningrad&seek1=&seek2=  in Fotoua by Alexander Komarov]
 
* [http://www.fotoua.com/1cameraAlltip.php?st=7&rd=4&usl=4&usl1=leningrad&seek1=&seek2=  in Fotoua by Alexander Komarov]
* [http://www.collection-appareils.fr/x/html/page_standard.php?id_appareil=11017 Leningrad] on [http://www.collection-appareils.fr/general/html/francais.php www.collection-appareils.fr] by Sylvain Halgand
+
* [http://www.collection-appareils.fr/x/html/page_standard.php?id_appareil=11017 Leningrad] on [http://www.collection-appareils.fr/general/html/francais.php www.collection-appareils.fr] by Sylvain Halgand (in French)
 +
 
 
[[Category: 39mm screw mount]]
 
[[Category: 39mm screw mount]]
 
[[Category: Spring motor]]
 
[[Category: Spring motor]]

Latest revision as of 06:15, 9 March 2018

The Leningrad (Ленинград) is a 35mm rangefinder camera manufactured by GOMZ, (ГОМЗ, Государственный оптико-механический завод, Ленинград = Gosularstvennyi Optiko-Mekhanicheskii Zavod =State Optical-Mechanical Factory), Leningrad, USSR. It was conceived by I. Shapiro and produced between 1956-68. It has a spring motor advance, and takes 39mm screw lenses.

The clockwork winding mechanism, a spring-powered mechanical motor, does not allow continuous shooting; for every frame you must release the shutter. It takes about 20 pictures after one full actuation of the spring, it is possible 3 frames per second (if you can do it). There is absolutely no way to advance film and to cock the shutter other than via the spring motor. There are engravings on the right side of the top plate as 0-5-10-15-20, with a pointer beneath the motor drive knob shows the count of frames that will be taken when the spring drive is cocking.[1]

The film take-up system is unique as it ignores the sprocket holes on 35mm film. Instead it winds the film onto a fat take-up spool (drum). No account is taken of the increasing diameter of this spool as film is wound onto it, resulting in increasingly wide gaps between the frames on a roll. Modern automated negative cutting will not adjust for the unique frame layout, and negatives and slides must be ordered from labs uncut. (Individual mounting of the slides must therefore be done by the user.) Users of the Leningrad consider this not a bug but a feature.

Leningrads were supplied with a standard Jupiter-8 lens and will accept most 39mm screw lenses. An over-hanging lip just above the lens mount makes it impossible to mount certain lenses.

Built very sturdily, and to a very high degree of precision (unlike most Soviet rangefinders), the Leningrad is said to be the most advanced (and expensive) Soviet rangefinder ever made. Many were given as presents to party members and visiting dignitaries. At the 1958 World Exposition in Brussels, the Leningrad was awarded the "Grand Prix de Bruxelles”. Modified Leningrads were used in the Soviet space program.

Just 76,000 units were made, a small number by Soviet standards. It is not known how many survive. There are 7 types and 4 sub-types of the Mir.[2][3] [4]

Some features

  • Lens: Jupiter-8 (ИНДУСТАР), 50mm f/2, coated, Mount: M39 screw, filter thread 35mm, made by KMZ
  • Focusing: matching rangefinder split images in the viewfinder
  • Shutter: Focal plane shutter, rubberized silk double cloth curtain, travelling horizontally, speeds 1- 1/1000 +B, plus bulb sync. 1/25s
  • Viewfinder: coupled Galilean viewfinder/rangefinder, (.68x), bright frame lines for 50, 85 and 135mm lenses, w/ a split image rangefinder with 57mm base. The whole finder covering the 35mm focal length. There is a diopter adjustment ring on the eyepiece.
  • Self-timer [5]
  • Adjustable flash synch delay 5 - 20 milliseconds
  • Back cover: removable with the bottom plate
  • Body: metal; Weight: 850g
  • Serial no.: first two digits show the manufacturing year, in the cold shoe

Notes and references

  1. If Leningrad suddenly decides not to advance the film after you've taken try turning the shutter speed dial slightly counterclockwise against spring tension, then letting it snap back. Often this will release the mechanism and let the film advance to the next frame. And since (as noted above) there's no alternate manual way to advance the film, you'd better hope this trick works!
  2. Types are according to Alaxander Komarov in Fotoua. You can also find serial numbers for dating of the cameras in this site. There is another classification of former-USSR cameras by Aidas Pikiotas at SovietCams
  3. Pages from the the book of former USSR cameras by Suglob, Shaternik, Kochergin
  4. Discussion of camera classifications in the books of Princelle and Suglob, Shaternik, Kochergin in USSR Photo Forum
  5. An inoperable self-timer is a common problem on the Leningrad because if the timer is set without the camera being wound, it breaks.
  6. This type 1b is a rare one. With type 1a this camera is earliest so far known productional version of Leningrad

Bibliography

In English

  • Princelle, Jean Loup (2004), The Authentic Guide to Russian and Soviet Cameras ('Made in USSR'), Le Reve Edition. ISBN 2952252106; or the earlier edition: Hove Foto Books, 2nd edition, 1995. 200 pages. ISBN 1874031630. Paperback.

In Russian

Links